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Definition of Boundary Testing

Evaluates software by focusing on the boundary or edge values of the input domain.
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Questions about Boundary Testing?

Basics and Importance

  • What is boundary testing?

    Boundary testing is a method where test cases are designed to include edge cases at the extreme ends of input domains. It targets the boundaries between partitions to catch errors that occur at the limits of input ranges. This technique is particularly useful for identifying off-by-one errors and ensuring that software handles boundary conditions gracefully.

    In practice, boundary testing involves:

    • Identifying the limits of input ranges.
    • Creating test cases for exact boundary values, and values that are just above and below these boundaries.

    For example, if an input field accepts values from 1 to 100, test cases should include 0, 1, 2, 99, 100, and 101.

    Boundary testing can be automated by scripting test cases that programmatically generate boundary values and assert the expected outcomes. Automation frameworks can be used to run these scripts, providing fast and repeatable validation.

    // Example in TypeScript using a hypothetical testing framework
    test('Boundary Test for input field', () => {
      const inputField = new InputField({ min: 1, max: 100 });
      expect(inputField.validate(0)).toBe(false); // Below boundary
      expect(inputField.validate(1)).toBe(true);  // Lower boundary
      expect(inputField.validate(2)).toBe(true);  // Just above lower boundary
      expect(inputField.validate(99)).toBe(true); // Just below upper boundary
      expect(inputField.validate(100)).toBe(true); // Upper boundary
      expect(inputField.validate(101)).toBe(false); // Above boundary

    While boundary testing is not exhaustive, it is an effective strategy for pinpointing defects related to edge conditions, which are often overlooked during general testing but can lead to significant software failures.

  • Why is boundary testing important in software testing?

    Boundary testing is crucial because it targets the edges of input domains where errors are more likely to occur. Developers may inadvertently introduce defects at the extreme ends of input ranges due to common programming errors such as off-by-one errors or incorrect inequality operators. By focusing on these edge cases, boundary testing can uncover defects that might not be detected by other testing methods that typically test within the 'safe' ranges of input values.

    Boundary testing is particularly effective in identifying issues related to data handling and logic flow. It ensures that the application can handle input values at their limits without crashing or behaving unexpectedly, which is essential for maintaining robustness and reliability. This type of testing is also beneficial for verifying that error messages are displayed appropriately when inputs are out of acceptable ranges.

    In addition to manual execution, boundary testing can be automated to repeatedly test boundary conditions with minimal effort. Automation frameworks can be programmed to generate boundary values, execute tests, and compare expected outcomes with actual results, streamlining the testing process and ensuring consistency.

    Boundary testing is not just about testing the exact boundary values but also includes values just inside and just outside the boundaries. This comprehensive approach helps in achieving thorough coverage of the application's input space, making it a vital component of any rigorous software testing strategy.

  • What are the key principles of boundary testing?

    Boundary testing focuses on the edges of input domains, where errors are more likely to occur. Here are the key principles:

    • Identify exact boundaries: Determine the upper and lower limits of input ranges, including any minimum and maximum values.
    • Include boundary values: Test using values at, just below, and just above the boundaries.
    • Consider data types: Be aware of how different data types handle boundary conditions, such as integer overflow or underflow.
    • Use both valid and invalid boundaries: Check how the system handles edge cases that are both within acceptable ranges and those that are not.
    • Remember zero and empty values: These are often edge cases for many input types.
    • Account for database limits: If the application interacts with a database, consider the constraints and limits of the database fields.
    • Test with hardware limits in mind: For applications that interact with hardware, consider the hardware's limitations as potential boundaries.
    • Automate where possible: Automating boundary tests ensures they are run consistently and can be included in regression testing.
    • Include non-functional boundaries: Test not only data input boundaries but also performance boundaries like load, stress, and concurrency limits.

    By adhering to these principles, boundary testing becomes a powerful technique to uncover defects that might otherwise go unnoticed until they cause issues in a production environment.

  • How does boundary testing improve the quality of software?

    Boundary testing improves software quality by targeting edge cases that are prone to errors. By focusing on the limits of input ranges, boundary testing ensures that software behaves correctly at and around these critical points, which are often overlooked during general testing. This methodical approach can reveal defects that may cause software to fail under unusual or extreme conditions.

    Since boundary conditions are frequently associated with off-by-one errors and other common programming mistakes, testing them directly increases the likelihood of catching such bugs. This leads to more robust and reliable software, as boundary testing verifies that the application can handle its specified input domain gracefully, including minimum and maximum values.

    Moreover, boundary testing can lead to better error handling and user input validation, as it exposes how the software copes with unexpected or out-of-range inputs. This can be particularly important for security, as boundary-related defects might be exploited by malicious actors.

    By ensuring that boundary conditions are well-tested, developers can have greater confidence in the stability and integrity of their software, leading to an overall improvement in software quality. Additionally, boundary testing can be efficiently automated, allowing for these critical test cases to be included in regression test suites, thus maintaining quality throughout the software development lifecycle.

  • What is the difference between boundary testing and other types of testing?

    Boundary testing specifically targets the edges of input domains, where errors are more likely to occur, by validating boundary values. Other types of testing, such as unit testing, integration testing, or system testing, focus on different aspects of the software:

    • Unit testing checks individual components or functions for correctness, often without concern for the data boundaries unless explicitly part of the test case.
    • Integration testing ensures that multiple components or systems work together, focusing on interfaces and data flow rather than input extremes.
    • System testing evaluates the complete and integrated software system to verify that it meets specified requirements, which may include but is not limited to boundary conditions.
    • Stress testing pushes the system to its limits in terms of load and performance but does not necessarily focus on boundary values of the input domain.
    • Usability testing assesses how user-friendly the application is, without specifically targeting boundary conditions unless they impact the user experience.
    • Security testing looks for vulnerabilities and security holes, which may include boundary testing but with a focus on exploiting potential security risks.

    Boundary testing is a technique applied within these broader testing types when the test cases specifically aim to explore the behavior of the software at the edge of input ranges. It complements other testing types by ensuring that edge cases are not overlooked, which can be critical for the robustness of the software.

Techniques and Approaches

  • What are the common techniques used in boundary testing?

    Common techniques used in boundary testing include:

    • Boundary Value Analysis (BVA): Testing at the exact boundaries of input domains. For example, if an input field accepts values from 1 to 100, test with values 1, 100, and also with values just outside the boundaries, like 0 and 101.

    • Robustness Testing: Similar to BVA but includes testing with values beyond the extreme edges of input domains. This can help identify how the system behaves with unexpected or extreme inputs.

    • Worst Case Boundary Testing: Combining the upper and lower boundary values of multiple input fields to determine the worst-case scenarios and ensure the system can handle them.

    • Stress Boundary Testing: Deliberately inputting boundary values at a high frequency or volume to evaluate system performance under stress.

    • Range Checking: Verifying that the system correctly handles input values within the specified range and rejects values outside the range.

    • Data-Driven Boundary Testing: Utilizing data-driven frameworks to feed boundary values from external data sources like CSV files, databases, or Excel sheets, allowing for more extensive and varied test cases.

    • Automated Boundary Testing: Implementing scripts using test automation tools to systematically test boundary values. This is often done using parameterized tests where boundary values are passed as parameters to test functions.

    // Example of a parameterized test in TypeScript
    describe('Boundary Tests', () => {
      const boundaryValues = [0, 1, 100, 101];
      boundaryValues.forEach((value) => {
        it(`should test input value: ${value}`, () => {
          // Test implementation here

    These techniques can be combined and tailored to fit the specific requirements of the software being tested, ensuring a thorough examination of boundary conditions.

  • How to determine the boundaries for boundary testing?

    To determine the boundaries for boundary testing, follow these steps:

    1. Identify all input variables and output results that could have defined ranges or limits within the application.
    2. Analyze the specifications or requirements to understand the expected range or limit for each variable or result. This includes minimum and maximum values, and any other specific points that could be considered a boundary (e.g., a list size limit).
    3. Define the exact boundary values. Typically, this includes the value at the boundary (on the edge), just below the boundary, and just above the boundary.
    4. Consider special cases or edge conditions that might not be immediately apparent, such as zero, negative values, maximum values for data types (e.g., INT_MAX for an integer in some programming languages), or the highest possible value that can be represented in a field.
    5. Use equivalence partitioning to divide the input data into valid and invalid partitions and then select the boundary values from these partitions.
    6. Review any existing test cases to ensure that boundary values are not already covered, to avoid duplication of effort.
    7. Document the identified boundary values and the rationale for their selection to maintain clarity and facilitate future test maintenance.

    By carefully analyzing and documenting the boundaries, you ensure that boundary testing is targeted and effective, leading to the discovery of defects related to boundary conditions.

  • What is the role of equivalence partitioning in boundary testing?

    Equivalence partitioning plays a crucial role in boundary testing by dividing input data into equivalent partitions where the system behavior is expected to be identical for any data point within a partition. This technique reduces the number of test cases while maintaining coverage, as only a few values from each partition need to be tested.

    When combined with boundary testing, equivalence partitioning ensures that edge cases at the boundaries of these partitions are thoroughly examined. Typically, boundaries are where errors are most likely to occur. By identifying partitions, testers can focus on the boundary values at the edges of these partitions, including the valid and invalid boundaries.

    For instance, if an input field accepts values from 1 to 100, equivalence partitioning might divide this range into partitions such as 1-50 and 51-100. Boundary testing would then focus on values at the edges of these partitions, such as 1, 50, 51, and 100, as well as values just outside the valid range, like 0 and 101.

    This strategic combination allows for a more efficient testing process, targeting areas with a higher defect probability without the need to test every possible input, ultimately leading to a more robust and reliable software product.

  • What is the difference between boundary value analysis and equivalence partitioning?

    Boundary Value Analysis (BVA) and Equivalence Partitioning (EP) are both black-box testing techniques used to design test cases.

    Equivalence Partitioning divides input data of a software module into partitions of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived. In EP, it is assumed that all the values from one partition behave the same way. If a test case from a partition passes, other test cases from the same partition are expected to pass.

    Boundary Value Analysis, on the other hand, focuses on the values at the edges of these partitions. BVA is based on the principle that errors tend to occur at the boundaries of input ranges. It involves testing at the boundaries between partitions, including the minimum and maximum values, just inside/outside boundaries, typical values, and error values.

    While EP is used to reduce the number of test cases by considering only one representative from each partition, BVA ensures that the boundaries are correctly handled by the system. BVA often complements EP by testing the edge cases that are not covered by EP's representative values.

    In summary, while Equivalence Partitioning is about grouping inputs into logically similar classes, Boundary Value Analysis is about identifying and testing the specific values at the extremes of these classes. Combining both techniques provides a more thorough testing approach that covers a wider range of input scenarios.

  • What are some best practices for conducting boundary testing?

    Best practices for conducting boundary testing include:

    • Identify exact boundaries: Ensure you have a clear understanding of the input domain and precisely identify the boundaries.
    • Include extreme values: Test with values at the exact boundary, as well as just inside and just outside the boundary.
    • Automate where possible: Use test automation frameworks to run boundary tests repeatedly, especially for regression testing.
    • Use data-driven tests: Implement data-driven testing to easily modify and extend boundary values without changing the test code.

    // Example of a data-driven boundary test in a pseudo-code testData = [boundary - 1, boundary, boundary + 1] testData.forEach(data => { test(Value ${data} should be handled correctly, () => { expect(processInput(data)).toBe(expectedOutcome) }) })

    - **Prioritize based on risk**: Focus on boundary conditions that are most likely to yield defects or have the highest impact.
    - **Consider non-numeric boundaries**: Remember to test boundaries for other data types like strings, dates, and collections.
    - **Document test cases**: Maintain clear documentation for each boundary test case to facilitate maintenance and understanding.
    - **Review and revise**: Regularly review boundary test cases to ensure they remain relevant as the software evolves.
    - **Combine with other techniques**: Use boundary testing in conjunction with other test methods like equivalence partitioning, decision table testing, and state transition testing for comprehensive coverage.
    - **Be mindful of environment**: Test boundary conditions in an environment that closely mirrors production to catch environment-specific issues.

Real-world Applications and Examples

  • Can you provide some real-world examples of boundary testing?

    Real-world examples of boundary testing often involve input validation, range checks, and handling of data sets. Here are a few scenarios:

    1. Input Fields: Testing an input field that accepts ages between 1 and 100. Boundary testing would check inputs of 0, 1, 100, and 101 to ensure proper validation and error handling.
    // Pseudo-code for automated boundary test
    test('Age input field boundary conditions', () => {
      expect(() => enterAge(0)).toThrow('Invalid age');
      expect(() => enterAge(101)).toThrow('Invalid age');
    1. File Uploads: A file upload feature that restricts file size to a maximum of 5MB. Test cases would include files that are exactly 5MB, slightly below (4.99MB), and slightly above (5.01MB).
    // Pseudo-code for file size boundary test
    test('File upload size boundary conditions', () => {
      expect(() => uploadFile(5.01)).toThrow('File too large');
    1. Pagination: Testing a pagination feature where each page shows 10 items. Boundary testing would involve checking the first page, last page, and scenarios where there are fewer than 10 items on the last page.
    // Pseudo-code for pagination boundary test
    test('Pagination boundary conditions', () => {
    1. Discount Codes: A discount code that is valid for the first 100 users. Boundary testing would check the 100th, 101st, and 1st user to ensure the code applies correctly and expires as expected.
    // Pseudo-code for discount code boundary test
    test('Discount code usage boundary conditions', () => {
      expect(() => applyDiscountCode(101stUser)).toThrow('Code expired');

    These examples demonstrate how boundary testing targets the edges of input ranges and functionality to uncover potential defects that might not be found through other testing methods.

  • How is boundary testing applied in web application testing?

    In web application testing, boundary testing is applied by focusing on the limits of input fields and data processing components. Test cases are designed to challenge the application with values at, just inside, and just outside the edges of input ranges. This includes testing:

    • Maximum and minimum values for text boxes, file uploads, and numerical inputs.
    • Date fields with leap years, month ends, and time zone boundaries.
    • Character limits in text areas, ensuring proper handling of edge cases.
    • Dropdowns and radio buttons for behavior when selections are at their limits.
    • Edge cases in business logic, such as pricing calculations at discount thresholds.

    Automated scripts simulate user interactions with these boundary conditions, often using parameterized tests to iterate over a range of boundary values. For example, in a JavaScript testing framework:

    describe('Boundary Testing for Web Application', () => {
      const boundaryValues = [0, 1, 255, 256]; // Assuming 0-255 is the valid range
      boundaryValues.forEach(value => {
        it(`should handle input value: ${value}`, () => {
          // Code to set the input value and assert expected behavior

    Automation tools like Selenium or Playwright interact with the web application's UI, while API testing tools like Postman or REST-assured test the boundaries at the service layer. It's crucial to validate not only the client-side validation but also server-side handling of boundary conditions to ensure robustness against unexpected inputs.

  • How is boundary testing used in mobile application testing?

    In mobile application testing, boundary testing is utilized to verify the robustness of the app under test across the range of input values it is expected to handle. Given the diverse ecosystem of mobile devices, boundary testing is particularly crucial to ensure that the app behaves correctly on different screen sizes, resolutions, and hardware configurations.

    To apply boundary testing in a mobile context, focus on:

    • User Input Fields: Test text inputs, sliders, and other widgets at their maximum, minimum, and just outside their acceptable range.
    • Device Compatibility: Check how the app handles the boundaries of device specifications, like low memory or minimal processor speed.
    • Screen Orientations: Validate the app's response to changes in screen orientation, ensuring UI elements adjust correctly at the edges of the screen.
    • Gesture Inputs: Ensure that swipe, pinch, and other gesture-based inputs are recognized correctly at the boundaries of the touch screen.
    • Network Conditions: Test the app's functionality at the boundaries of network strength, such as switching between Wi-Fi and cellular data or at low signal strengths.

    Automate boundary tests using frameworks that support mobile platforms, like Appium or Espresso, scripting edge cases for various inputs and states. Incorporate parameterized tests to efficiently cover a range of boundary values.

    Remember to prioritize critical paths and functionalities that are more likely to be affected by boundary conditions. This targeted approach helps maintain efficiency while ensuring thorough coverage where it matters most.

  • What are some common mistakes made during boundary testing?

    Common mistakes in boundary testing include:

    • Neglecting off-by-one errors: Failing to test values immediately outside the boundaries can miss critical off-by-one errors, which are common in loops and array indexing.
    • Overlooking non-numeric boundaries: Not considering non-numeric inputs like string lengths, file sizes, or date ranges can lead to missed edge cases.
    • Ignoring implicit boundaries: Missing boundaries implied by the business logic or user requirements, not just those explicitly defined in the software specifications.
    • Assuming homogeneity in boundary behavior: Presuming that all boundaries will behave similarly and not testing each one individually can lead to undetected defects.
    • Forgetting UI and UX boundaries: Skipping tests for user interface limits, such as maximum field lengths or file upload sizes, can affect user experience.
    • Disregarding database limits: Not testing the limits of database fields, such as maximum number of records or data type constraints, can cause failures in data handling.
    • Omitting error handling paths: Not testing how the system handles inputs that exceed boundaries, which is crucial for ensuring robust error handling and system stability.
    • Failing to retest after changes: Not retesting boundary conditions after code changes can allow new or regressed bugs to go unnoticed.
    • Inadequate documentation: Poorly documenting boundary conditions and test cases can lead to confusion and gaps in test coverage.

    Avoiding these mistakes requires careful planning, thorough understanding of the system under test, and diligent execution of boundary tests.

  • How can boundary testing be automated?

    Automating boundary testing involves scripting test cases that focus on the edge cases of input data ranges. To automate this process, follow these steps:

    1. Identify boundary conditions using the information from the boundary determination process.
    2. Design test cases that include values at, just below, and just above the boundaries.
    3. Implement test scripts using a test automation framework like Selenium, JUnit, or TestNG. Parameterize the tests to run with different boundary values.
    public void testBoundaryValues() {
        int[] boundaryValues = new int[]{boundary - 1, boundary, boundary + 1};
        for (int value : boundaryValues) {
            // Call the method or feature being tested with the boundary value
            // Assert the expected outcome
    1. Utilize data-driven testing techniques to feed boundary values into the test scripts from an external data source like CSV files or databases.
    @DataProvider(name = "boundaryValueProvider")
    public Object[][] boundaryValueProvider() {
        return new Object[][] {
            { boundary - 1 },
            { boundary },
            { boundary + 1 }
    @Test(dataProvider = "boundaryValueProvider")
    public void testBoundaryValue(int value) {
        // Test logic here
    1. Integrate boundary tests into the continuous integration pipeline to ensure they are executed regularly.
    2. Review test results and refine tests as needed to maintain effectiveness.

    By automating boundary testing, you ensure consistent execution of these critical tests, which helps in identifying defects that might occur at the extreme ends of input ranges.

Challenges and Limitations

  • What are the challenges in implementing boundary testing?

    Implementing boundary testing presents several challenges:

    • Identifying exact boundaries can be difficult, especially in complex systems with numerous inputs and configurations. Misidentified boundaries lead to ineffective tests.
    • Handling special data types, such as floating-point numbers or large datasets, requires careful consideration to ensure boundaries are tested accurately.
    • Test data generation for boundary conditions can be time-consuming, as it often involves creating a large number of variations to cover all edge cases.
    • Automating boundary tests can be complex when dealing with user interfaces or systems that do not expose clear API endpoints for boundary conditions.
    • Interactions between different input fields can create a combinatorial explosion of test cases, making it challenging to manage and execute all possible boundary scenarios.
    • Maintaining boundary tests becomes difficult as the system evolves. Changes in the software may shift boundaries, necessitating updates to the test suite.
    • False positives can occur if the boundary conditions are too strict or if the test environment does not accurately reflect production conditions.
    • Performance issues may arise when executing a large number of boundary tests, especially in continuous integration environments where quick feedback is essential.

    To overcome these challenges, engineers must employ strategic test design, use tools for automated test data generation, maintain clear documentation, and continuously refine the boundary test suite in response to system changes.

  • What are the limitations of boundary testing?

    Boundary testing, while effective, has several limitations:

    • False Sense of Security: It focuses on edge cases and may overlook errors within the input range, leading to a false sense of security regarding the application's robustness.
    • Complex Boundaries: In systems with complex input spaces, identifying all boundaries can be challenging, potentially resulting in incomplete testing.
    • High-Dimensional Input: For software with high-dimensional input spaces, testing all boundary conditions becomes impractical due to the combinatorial explosion of test cases.
    • Non-numeric Inputs: Boundary testing is less intuitive for non-numeric inputs like strings or files, requiring more creativity to determine meaningful boundary conditions.
    • Dynamic Boundaries: Systems with boundaries that change over time or are dependent on external factors can be difficult to test consistently.
    • Limited Bug Detection: It primarily uncovers errors at the extremes and may miss bugs related to functionality, logic, or performance that are not boundary-related.
    • User Behavior: Real-world user behavior often deviates from the boundaries, meaning that boundary testing alone cannot guarantee the detection of all issues users might encounter.

    To mitigate these limitations, boundary testing should be complemented with other testing techniques such as equivalence partitioning, decision table testing, and exploratory testing. This multi-faceted approach ensures a more comprehensive evaluation of the software's reliability and robustness.

  • How to overcome the challenges in boundary testing?

    To overcome challenges in boundary testing, consider the following strategies:

    • Automate the process: Use test automation frameworks to handle repetitive boundary test cases efficiently. Automation can also help in maintaining the tests when boundaries change.

      // Example: Automated boundary test for an input field accepting 1-100
      it('should handle boundary values', () => {
        expect(inputField.validate(0)).toBe(false); // Below boundary
        expect(inputField.validate(1)).toBe(true);  // On lower boundary
        expect(inputField.validate(100)).toBe(true); // On upper boundary
        expect(inputField.validate(101)).toBe(false); // Above boundary
    • Utilize parameterized tests: Create tests that can be run with different inputs to cover boundary conditions without writing multiple test cases.

    • Incorporate randomness: Use random value generators within the boundary limits to ensure a wide range of values are tested.

    • Prioritize critical boundaries: Focus on boundaries that are most likely to be affected by changes or are critical to the application's functionality.

    • Review and update tests regularly: As the software evolves, so should the boundary tests. Regularly review and adjust the boundaries and test cases to stay relevant.

    • Leverage risk-based testing: Assess the risk associated with each boundary and allocate testing efforts accordingly.

    • Collaborate with developers: Work closely with developers to understand the system's behavior at boundaries and to ensure that edge cases are considered during the development phase.

    • Use static code analysis tools: These tools can help identify potential boundary-related errors in the code before runtime testing.

    By implementing these strategies, you can enhance the effectiveness of boundary testing and better manage its challenges.

  • How effective is boundary testing in finding bugs?

    Boundary testing is highly effective in uncovering bugs that occur at the edges of input domains. By focusing on the limits, it often detects errors that result from off-by-one mistakes, incorrect boundary handling, and improper validation. This technique is particularly adept at finding issues that might not be exposed by other testing methods which typically sample from the middle of input ranges.

    Since boundary conditions are common points of failure in software, testing these areas can reveal critical defects that might cause software to fail in production. It's especially useful when applications are expected to handle a wide range of inputs or when they must respond gracefully at the limits of their capabilities.

    However, the effectiveness of boundary testing is not absolute; it won't catch bugs that are not related to boundary conditions. It should be used in conjunction with other testing strategies to ensure a comprehensive examination of the software.

    Automated boundary testing can increase its effectiveness by allowing for rapid and repeatable test execution. Automated tests can be designed to iterate over boundary values, including extreme and out-of-range inputs, to thoroughly exercise the software's handling of edge cases.

    In summary, boundary testing is a potent tool for bug discovery at the peripheries of input domains, but it is most effective when integrated into a broader testing strategy that includes a variety of other testing techniques.

  • How to ensure comprehensive coverage in boundary testing?

    To ensure comprehensive coverage in boundary testing, follow these strategies:

    • Identify all boundaries: Ensure you've identified all the boundaries from the specifications, including minimum and maximum values, and edge cases.
    • Include off-by-one errors: Test immediately above and below the boundary values to catch common off-by-one errors.
    • Consider data types: Pay attention to the data types being used. For example, if an integer is expected, test with the largest and smallest possible integers.
    • Use automation wisely: Automate boundary tests to efficiently cover numerous boundary conditions and variations without human error.
    • Parameterize tests: Use parameterized tests to run the same test with different boundary values, reducing code duplication and increasing maintainability.
    • Review and update: Regularly review and update boundary tests to reflect changes in the system's requirements and boundaries.
    • Combine with other techniques: Use boundary testing in conjunction with other testing techniques like equivalence partitioning, decision table testing, and state transition testing for thorough coverage.
    • Leverage risk-based testing: Prioritize boundary tests based on the risk of failure and the impact of potential defects.

    Here's an example of a parameterized test in TypeScript using Jest:

      { input: boundary.min - 1, expected: 'fail' },
      { input: boundary.min, expected: 'pass' },
      { input: boundary.min + 1, expected: 'pass' },
      { input: boundary.max - 1, expected: 'pass' },
      { input: boundary.max, expected: 'pass' },
      { input: boundary.max + 1, expected: 'fail' },
    ])('Boundary Test', ({ input, expected }) => {
      test(`Value ${input} should ${expected}`, () => {
        const result = systemUnderTest(input);

    By adhering to these strategies, you can achieve comprehensive coverage in boundary testing, ensuring that edge cases are effectively tested and potential defects are identified.

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