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Definition of Test Script

Contains specific instructions for the system during a test.
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Questions about Test Script?

Basics and Importance

  • What is a test script in software testing?

    A test script is a set of instructions executed by an automated testing tool to validate the functionality of a software application. It's essentially a program that interacts with the software being tested, performing actions as a user would, and checking for expected outcomes. Test scripts are written in a specific scripting or programming language supported by the test automation framework being used.

    Here's a basic example in JavaScript using the popular testing framework, WebDriverIO:

    describe('Login Page Test', () => {
      it('should let user log in', () => {

    This script navigates to a login page, enters credentials, clicks the login button, and verifies that the user is redirected to the dashboard.

    Scripts are typically stored in version control systems alongside the application code, allowing for easy maintenance and collaboration among team members. They are an integral part of continuous integration/continuous deployment (CI/CD) pipelines, ensuring that any code changes do not break existing functionality.

  • Why are test scripts important in software testing?

    Test scripts are crucial in software testing because they serve as the executable instructions that automate the testing process. By automating repetitive and time-consuming tasks, test scripts enhance testing efficiency and consistency, ensuring that tests are performed in the same manner every time. They enable testers to cover more ground in less time, increasing the test coverage and the likelihood of discovering defects.

    Moreover, test scripts are essential for continuous integration and continuous delivery pipelines, allowing for the quick feedback that is vital in agile development environments. They facilitate regression testing by quickly verifying that new code changes have not adversely affected existing functionalities.

    Test scripts also contribute to test documentation, providing a clear record of what has been tested, which can be crucial for audits and compliance. They support collaboration among team members by serving as a reference point, ensuring that everyone has a clear understanding of the test procedures.

    In environments where multiple configurations or platforms need to be tested, scripts can be easily parameterized or adapted, saving time and reducing the potential for human error. Lastly, well-maintained test scripts can be reused across different projects, further increasing the return on investment for the effort put into writing them.

  • What are the key components of a test script?

    Key components of a test script include:

    • Test Setup: Initialization code to prepare the test environment, such as starting a web server, initializing database connections, or setting initial conditions.

    • Test Data: Input values required to execute the test, which may be hardcoded, generated, or loaded from external sources.

    • Actions: The sequence of steps that simulate user interactions or system processes, often represented as functions or methods.

    • Assertions: Checks that validate the expected outcomes against actual results, determining if the test passes or fails.

    • Test Teardown: Cleanup code that runs after test execution to reset the environment, such as closing connections or deleting test data.

    • Error Handling: Mechanisms to gracefully handle unexpected events or exceptions during test execution.

    • Logging: Statements that record the progress and results of the test execution, useful for debugging and reporting.

    • Comments: Descriptive text providing context or explanations for complex parts of the script, aiding maintainability.

    • Metadata: Information such as test identifiers, descriptions, and associated requirements or areas of the application under test.

    Here's a simplified example in TypeScript:

    import { expect } from 'chai';
    describe('Login Feature', () => {
      before(() => {
        // Test Setup
      it('should authenticate user with valid credentials', () => {
        // Actions
        const result = loginUser('user@example.com', 'password123');
        // Assertions
      after(() => {
        // Test Teardown

    Each component plays a critical role in ensuring the test script is reliable, maintainable, and provides clear results.

  • How does a test script contribute to the overall testing process?

    Test scripts serve as the executable components of the testing strategy, translating test cases into actions that can be automatically performed by testing tools. They drive the automation framework to interact with the application under test, validating expected outcomes against actual results. By doing so, test scripts enhance the efficiency of the testing process, enabling rapid execution of repetitive tasks and complex test scenarios that would be time-consuming and error-prone if done manually.

    Through their integration into Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) pipelines, test scripts facilitate early detection of defects and regressions, contributing to a shift-left testing approach. This integration ensures that automated tests are run frequently and consistently, providing immediate feedback to the development team.

    Moreover, test scripts contribute to test coverage by ensuring that various paths and functionalities are checked. They can be parameterized to run with different data sets (data-driven testing) or driven by keywords (keyword-driven testing), enhancing their flexibility and reusability across different test scenarios.

    By leveraging test scripts, teams can perform regression testing more effectively, ensuring that new changes do not break existing functionality. This is crucial for maintaining software quality over time.

    In summary, test scripts are pivotal in executing defined test cases, ensuring consistent and reliable testing, and providing valuable feedback to the development process, ultimately contributing to the delivery of high-quality software.

  • What is the difference between a test case and a test script?

    A test case is a set of conditions or variables under which a tester will determine whether an application or software system is working correctly. It's a document that describes the input, action, or event and an expected response, to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly.

    A test script, on the other hand, is the actual code that implements a test case in an automated testing environment. It's a sequence of instructions for automated execution that tests a specific function or part of the system. Test scripts are written in a programming or scripting language and can be run automatically by test automation tools.

    The main difference lies in their nature and usage:

    • Test cases are more about the what—they describe what to test, the steps to be taken, and the expected result, without specifying how the test will be executed.
    • Test scripts focus on the how—they are concerned with how to perform the test steps programmatically and are used to automate the execution of test cases.

    In essence, test cases can exist without automation, serving as a guide for manual testing, while test scripts are inherently tied to automation and are the practical execution of test cases in an automated framework.

Creation and Execution

  • How is a test script created?

    Creating a test script involves several steps that translate test cases into executable scripts:

    1. Identify test requirements: Determine what needs to be tested based on the application's functionality and the test plan.

    2. Define test objectives: Clearly state what the script is intended to verify within the application.

    3. Choose a testing tool: Select an appropriate automation tool that supports the application's technology stack.

    4. Set up the test environment: Ensure the environment is prepared with the necessary configurations and data.

    5. Write the test script: Develop the script using the chosen tool's scripting language or a general-purpose programming language. This typically includes:

      • Initialization: Set up any prerequisites for the test.
      • Execution steps: Translate manual test steps into automated instructions.
      • Verification points: Assert expected outcomes at specific stages.
      • Teardown: Clean up after test execution, such as closing applications or connections.
    6. Parameterize inputs: If applicable, use external data sources to drive the test inputs for data-driven testing.

    7. Review and refactor: Evaluate the script for readability, maintainability, and adherence to best practices.

    8. Validate the script: Run the script in a controlled environment to ensure it behaves as expected.

    9. Version control: Check the script into a version control system to track changes and collaborate with other team members.

    Example of a simple test script in pseudocode:

    loginToApplication("username", "password");
    navigateToFeature("Feature X");
    executeFunction("Function Y");
    assertExpectedOutcome("Expected Result");
  • What are the steps involved in executing a test script?

    Executing a test script typically involves the following steps:

    1. Environment Setup: Ensure the test environment is prepared with the necessary configurations, databases, and servers.

    2. Test Data Preparation: Arrange the required test data for the script, which may involve creating, modifying, or importing data.

    3. Dependency Check: Verify that all dependencies, such as other services or systems, are available and functioning.

    4. Execution Pre-checks: Perform pre-execution checks to ensure the system is in the right state and the test script is configured correctly.

    5. Running the Test: Execute the test script using the chosen automation tool. This can be initiated through a command line, a test runner, or a continuous integration (CI) pipeline.

    6. Monitoring: Observe the test execution to catch any immediate issues such as crashes or unexpected behavior.

    7. Result Collection: Gather the results from the test run, which may include logs, screenshots, and output files.

    8. Verification: Assess the test outcomes against expected results to determine if the test passed or failed.

    9. Reporting: Generate reports that summarize the test execution, providing details on successes, failures, and other relevant metrics.

    10. Cleanup: Reset the test environment to a clean state, ready for subsequent tests.

    11. Analysis: Review the test results and logs to identify any defects or areas for improvement in the test script or the application under test.

    12. Bug Reporting: If issues are found, document and report them according to the project's defect management process.

    13. Script Maintenance: Update the test script as necessary to reflect changes in the application or to enhance the script's performance and maintainability.

  • What tools are commonly used to create and execute test scripts?

    Common tools for creating and executing test scripts include:

    • Selenium: An open-source framework for web automation that supports multiple languages and browsers.

      WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
    • Appium: Extends Selenium's framework to mobile applications, both Android and iOS.

      DesiredCapabilities caps = new DesiredCapabilities();
      caps.setCapability("platformName", "iOS");
    • Cypress: A JavaScript-based end-to-end testing framework that runs in-browser.

    • JUnit/TestNG: Frameworks for unit testing in Java, often used for automation in conjunction with Selenium.

      public void testExample() {
    • RSpec/Cucumber: Tools for behavior-driven development (BDD), allowing tests to be written in a natural language style.

      describe "An example test" do
        it "should pass" do
          expect(true).to eq(true)
    • Postman: For API testing, with the ability to write and execute tests for RESTful APIs.

      pm.test("Status code is 200", function () {
    • Robot Framework: A keyword-driven test automation framework for acceptance testing and acceptance test-driven development (ATDD).

      *** Test Cases ***
      Example Test
          Open Browser  https://example.com  Chrome
          Title Should Be  Example Domain
    • Playwright: A Node library to automate Chromium, Firefox, and WebKit with a single API.

      await page.goto('https://example.com');
      await page.click('text="More information"');

    These tools offer various features for different testing needs and can be integrated into continuous integration/continuous deployment (CI/CD) pipelines for automated test execution.

  • What are the best practices for writing a test script?

    Best practices for writing a test script include:

    • Maintainability: Write clear, understandable code with meaningful variable names and comments. This makes it easier for others to modify and maintain the script.
    • Modularity: Break down the test script into smaller, reusable functions or methods to promote code reuse and simplify updates.

    function login(username, password) { // Code to perform login }

    - **Version Control**: Use version control systems like Git to track changes and collaborate with other team members.
    - **Error Handling**: Implement robust error handling to ensure the script can gracefully handle unexpected conditions.
    - **Assertions**: Use assertions effectively to validate test outcomes. They should be specific and provide clear failure messages.
    - ```ts
    assert.strictEqual(actualValue, expectedValue, "Value mismatch error");
    • Data Separation: Keep test data separate from the script, using data-driven techniques to allow for easy updates and scalability.
    • Consistency: Follow consistent naming conventions and coding standards to ensure uniformity across scripts.
    • Performance: Optimize scripts to run efficiently, avoiding unnecessary waits or resource-heavy operations.
    • Scalability: Design scripts to handle varying data sets and user loads, ensuring they remain effective as the application grows.
    • Clean Up: Always include clean-up steps to reset the application state and ensure no impact on subsequent tests.
    • Documentation: Document the purpose and scope of the test script within the code for clarity.
    • Continuous Integration: Integrate test scripts into a CI/CD pipeline to enable continuous testing and feedback.

    By adhering to these practices, test automation engineers can create reliable, efficient, and maintainable test scripts that contribute to the overall quality of the software testing process.

  • How can you debug a test script?

    Debugging a test script involves identifying and fixing issues that cause the script to fail or behave unexpectedly. Here are some strategies to effectively debug test scripts:

    • Use logging: Implement logging within the script to capture detailed information during execution. This can help pinpoint where the script is failing.
    console.log('Current step: Checking the login functionality');
    • Breakpoints: Set breakpoints in your test script to pause execution at specific points. This allows you to inspect the current state and variables.
    debugger; // In browser-based tools or IDEs that support JavaScript debugging
    • Step-through execution: Use your IDE's debugging tools to step through the script line by line. This helps you observe the flow of execution and the state of the application at each step.

    • Check assertions: Verify that your assertions are correct and are testing what you expect. Incorrect assertions can lead to false positives or negatives.

    assert.equal(actualValue, expectedValue, 'Values do not match');
    • Isolate tests: Run a single test or a small group of tests to ensure that failures are not due to interactions with other tests.

    • Review test environment: Ensure that the test environment matches the expected configuration and that external dependencies are functioning correctly.

    • Analyze test data: Confirm that the data used for testing is valid and in the expected format.

    • Inspect application logs: Check the application logs for any errors or warnings that may correlate with the test script failures.

    • Update dependencies: Ensure that all frameworks, libraries, and tools are up-to-date and compatible with each other.

    By systematically applying these techniques, you can identify the root cause of issues in your test scripts and resolve them effectively.

Types and Techniques

  • What are the different types of test scripts?

    Different types of test scripts in software test automation include:

    • Linear Scripts: Sequential steps with no control structures, resembling manual test cases.
    • Modular-Based Scripts: Divided into functions or modules representing different application parts.
    • Data-Driven Scripts: Separate test logic from test data, allowing scripts to run with various inputs.
    • Keyword-Driven Scripts: Use keywords to represent actions, enabling non-technical stakeholders to understand and possibly write tests.
    • Hybrid Scripts: Combine features of data-driven and keyword-driven approaches for flexibility.
    • Behavior-Driven Development (BDD) Scripts: Use natural language-like syntax (e.g., Gherkin) to define test scenarios.
    • Record and Playback Scripts: Generated by recording user actions and replaying them for testing.
    • Performance Test Scripts: Simulate multiple users or high loads to test system performance and stability.
    • API Test Scripts: Focus on testing application programming interfaces (APIs) directly.
    • Mobile Test Scripts: Tailored for mobile platforms, considering different OS versions, screen sizes, and interactions.
    • Exploratory Test Scripts: Less structured, guiding testers through exploratory testing sessions.

    Each type serves different purposes and may be chosen based on the testing requirements, application complexity, and team expertise.

  • What is the difference between manual and automated test scripts?

    Manual test scripts are typically written in a human-readable format, such as plain language steps in a document, and require a human tester to execute the steps manually to verify the behavior of the application under test. They are more flexible and can adapt to unexpected changes during execution but are time-consuming and prone to human error.

    Automated test scripts, on the other hand, are written in a programming language or a scripting language and are executed by a software tool. They enable the execution of predefined actions on the application automatically, without human intervention. Automated scripts are faster and more reliable for repetitive tasks but require initial setup time and maintenance to adapt to changes in the application.

    Manual Test Script Example:

    1. Open the application.
    2. Navigate to the login page.
    3. Enter username and password.
    4. Click the login button.
    5. Verify that the homepage is displayed.

    Automated Test Script Example (in pseudo-code):

    describe("Login functionality", () => {
      it("should display the homepage upon successful login", () => {
        enterCredentials("user", "pass");

    The key difference lies in the execution—manual scripts require human action, while automated scripts are run by tools. Additionally, automated scripts can be integrated into continuous integration/continuous delivery (CI/CD) pipelines, allowing for continuous testing and faster feedback loops.

  • What is data-driven testing in relation to test scripts?

    Data-driven testing (DDT) is a methodology where test scripts are executed with multiple sets of input data to validate that the application behaves as expected across various data points. Instead of hardcoding values into the test scripts, DDT separates test logic from the test data, allowing for a more scalable and maintainable testing process.

    In DDT, test data is typically stored in external data sources like CSV files, Excel spreadsheets, XML files, or databases. Test scripts read the data, execute the same set of actions with each data set, and verify the outcomes. This approach enables a single test script to cover multiple test cases by iterating over the data sets.

    Here's a simplified example in pseudocode:

    for each data_row in data_source:
        input_value = data_row['input']
        expected_result = data_row['expected']
        actual_result = perform_test(input_value)
        assert actual_result == expected_result

    By using DDT, test automation engineers can:

    • Reduce redundancy in test scripts, leading to cleaner and more manageable code.
    • Increase test coverage by easily adding new test scenarios just by adding new data sets.
    • Improve test accuracy by systematically covering edge cases and boundary conditions.
    • Simplify debugging since data causing failures can be quickly identified and isolated.
    • Enhance collaboration by allowing non-technical stakeholders to contribute to test data creation and review.

    DDT is particularly useful when testing applications that handle various inputs and need to be validated against different data combinations, such as form submissions, data processing systems, and API endpoints.

  • What is keyword-driven testing in relation to test scripts?

    Keyword-driven testing is a methodology where test automation is guided by keywords or action words that describe the actions to be performed on the application under test. These keywords abstract the underlying technical implementation, allowing non-technical stakeholders to understand and possibly contribute to automated tests.

    In this approach, test scripts are composed of a sequence of keywords, each representing a higher-level action, such as "click", "enter text", or "verify". The keywords are associated with parameters that provide context, like the specific UI element to interact with or the value to verify.

    Here's a simplified example of a keyword-driven test script:

    OpenBrowser "http://example.com/login"
    EnterText "username_field", "testuser"
    EnterText "password_field", "securepassword"
    ClickButton "login_button"
    VerifyText "dashboard_page", "Welcome, testuser"

    Each line represents an instruction composed of a keyword and its parameters. The actual code to interact with the application is abstracted into libraries or frameworks that interpret these keywords and execute the corresponding actions.

    Keyword-driven testing promotes reusability and maintainability of test scripts, as keywords can be used across multiple test cases. It also enhances collaboration between technical and non-technical team members by using a common, understandable language for test automation. However, it requires a well-designed set of keywords and a robust framework to interpret and execute them effectively.

  • What are some techniques for optimizing test scripts?

    To optimize test scripts, consider the following techniques:

    • Refactor regularly: Keep your code clean by refactoring for readability and maintainability. Remove duplication and improve script structure.

    • Use Page Object Model (POM): Encapsulate UI structure changes within page objects to reduce maintenance and improve clarity.

    class LoginPage { private By usernameField = By.id("username"); public void enterUsername(String username) { driver.findElement(usernameField).sendKeys(username); } }

    - **Prioritize tests**: Focus on critical paths and functionalities. Use risk-based testing to determine which areas are most crucial.
    - **Parallel execution**: Run tests concurrently to reduce execution time. Ensure tests are independent to avoid conflicts.
    - ```xml
    <suite name="MySuite" parallel="methods" thread-count="5">
        <test name="Test1">
                <class name="Test1"/>
    • Utilize test data efficiently: Use data providers or external data sources to feed tests with the necessary data without hardcoding.

    • Implement waits wisely: Use explicit waits over implicit to reduce unnecessary delays and flakiness.

    WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver, Duration.ofSeconds(10)); wait.until(ExpectedConditions.visibilityOfElementLocated(By.id("myElement")));

    - **Monitor and analyze test results**: Use dashboards and reporting tools to identify flaky tests and areas for improvement.
    - **Leverage caching**: Cache setup data when possible to avoid repeating expensive setup tasks for each test.
    - **Continuous Integration (CI)**: Integrate tests into a CI pipeline to detect issues early and fix them faster.
    - **Regularly review and update**: Keep scripts aligned with application changes and remove obsolete tests to ensure relevance and efficiency.

Integration and Maintenance

  • How are test scripts integrated into the overall test plan?

    Integrating test scripts into an overall test plan involves aligning them with the test strategy and ensuring they cover the test objectives. Test scripts are typically organized within the test plan based on the features they test and the order in which they should be executed. This organization is often reflected in the test suite structure within test automation frameworks.

    To ensure seamless integration, mapping test scripts to test cases within the test plan is crucial. This mapping provides traceability and helps in understanding the coverage of the application under test. Test scripts should be tagged or labeled with identifiers that correspond to test case IDs in the test plan.

    Scheduling is another aspect of integration. Automated test scripts can be triggered as part of continuous integration/continuous deployment (CI/CD) pipelines or during scheduled test runs. This is configured in the test environment using tools like Jenkins, GitLab CI, or similar.

    Dependencies between test scripts must be managed to ensure that tests that rely on the outcomes of others are executed in the correct sequence. This is often handled through test management tools or scripting logic within the test automation framework.

    Reporting mechanisms should be in place to feed test results back into the test plan for analysis. This often involves integrating with test management tools or generating reports that can be reviewed manually.

    Lastly, version control systems are used to keep test scripts aligned with the versions of the application they are meant to test, ensuring that the test plan is always up-to-date with the current state of the test automation suite.

  • How can test scripts be maintained over time?

    Maintaining test scripts over time requires a strategic approach to ensure they remain effective and relevant. Here are some key practices:

    • Version Control: Use tools like Git to track changes, enabling rollback to previous versions if necessary.
    • Modular Design: Write scripts in a modular fashion, with reusable components, to simplify updates and maintenance.
    • Regular Refactoring: Periodically review and refactor scripts to improve clarity and reduce complexity, removing deprecated functions and updating to current best practices.
    • Parameterization: Use parameters for data inputs to make scripts more flexible and easier to update.
    • Documentation: Keep documentation up-to-date, including comments within the code to explain complex logic or dependencies.
    • Continuous Integration: Integrate scripts into a CI/CD pipeline to ensure they are executed regularly, revealing issues early.
    • Automated Checks: Implement automated checks to detect when application changes break scripts, prompting timely updates.
    • Code Reviews: Conduct regular peer reviews to catch potential maintenance issues and share knowledge across the team.
    • Test Data Management: Manage test data effectively, ensuring it remains relevant and doesn't become a maintenance burden.
    • Monitoring: Use monitoring tools to track the performance and reliability of scripts over time, identifying degradation or areas for improvement.

    By following these practices, test scripts can be kept robust and adaptable to changes in the software they are designed to test.

  • What is the role of test scripts in regression testing?

    In regression testing, test scripts serve as automated checks to ensure that recent code changes haven't adversely affected existing functionalities. They are crucial for validating the stability of software after modifications such as enhancements, patches, or configuration changes.

    Test scripts automate repetitive but necessary tests that must be run for each new release or iteration, providing a fast and consistent means of verification. This is particularly important for regression testing, where the goal is to identify unintended side effects quickly.

    By leveraging test scripts, teams can execute a larger volume of tests within a shorter time frame, leading to more efficient testing cycles. They enable continuous integration and delivery by integrating with build systems to run tests automatically whenever changes are committed.

    Moreover, test scripts in regression testing help in maintaining a living documentation of the system's expected behavior. They act as a safety net that can catch regressions early in the development cycle, reducing the risk of bugs making it to production.

    Automated test scripts are also easily repeatable and can be run on multiple environments and configurations, ensuring that the application behaves as expected across different scenarios.

    To summarize, test scripts are pivotal in regression testing for providing quick feedback, ensuring consistent test execution, and safeguarding application quality in the face of ongoing changes.

  • How can test scripts be reused across different testing scenarios?

    Test scripts can be reused across different testing scenarios by implementing modularization, parameterization, and abstraction techniques.

    Modularization involves breaking down test scripts into smaller, reusable modules or functions that perform specific tasks. These modules can be called multiple times with different inputs across various test cases.

    function login(username, password) {
        // Code to perform login
    function verifyLogin() {
        // Code to verify login success
    // Reuse modules in different scenarios
    login('user1', 'pass1');
    login('user2', 'pass2');

    Parameterization allows test scripts to accept external inputs, making them flexible and applicable to multiple data sets or environments. Data-driven testing frameworks facilitate this by separating test data from the scripts.

    function testLogin(data) {
        login(data.username, data.password);
    // External data source
    const testData = [
        { username: 'user1', password: 'pass1' },
        { username: 'user2', password: 'pass2' }
    testData.forEach(data => testLogin(data));

    Abstraction layers, such as Page Object Models (POM), encapsulate the details of UI elements and interactions within objects. This promotes reuse and simplifies maintenance when UI changes occur.

    class LoginPage {
        constructor() {
            this.usernameField = '#username';
            this.passwordField = '#password';
            this.submitButton = '#submit';
        login(username, password) {
            // Code to interact with page elements
    const loginPage = new LoginPage();
    loginPage.login('user1', 'pass1');

    By employing these strategies, test scripts become more maintainable, scalable, and efficient, enabling their reuse across different testing scenarios.

  • What are the challenges in maintaining test scripts and how can they be overcome?

    Maintaining test scripts presents several challenges, such as flakiness, outdated documentation, code complexity, and environment changes. Overcoming these requires a combination of good practices and tooling.

    Flakiness can be mitigated by ensuring tests are deterministic. Use explicit waits over implicit ones and validate the state of the application before actions.

    For outdated documentation, implement a process where documentation updates are part of the definition of done for any changes. Code comments and commit messages should clearly describe the purpose and functionality of the test.

    Code complexity increases with the application's evolution. Refactor tests regularly to improve readability and maintainability. Apply design patterns like Page Object Model (POM) to separate test logic from navigation code.

    Environment changes often break tests. Use containerization or virtualization to create consistent testing environments. Implementing a robust CI/CD pipeline ensures tests run in a controlled environment.

    Leverage version control systems like Git to track changes and facilitate collaboration. Code reviews help catch issues early and share knowledge across the team.

    Automate the detection of deprecated or unused code with static analysis tools. This helps in keeping the test codebase clean and up-to-date.

    Finally, prioritize tests based on risk and value. Focus maintenance efforts on high-value tests to ensure critical application paths are always covered.

    // Example of a deterministic wait in a test script
    await driver.wait(until.elementLocated(By.id('username')), 10000);

    By addressing these challenges with strategic practices and tools, test script maintenance becomes more manageable, ensuring reliability and efficiency in the testing process.

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