← Back to QA Wiki

Definition of Security Testing

Security Testing aims to reveal potential vulnerabilities in a software system which may lead to information loss, revenue reduction, or reputational damage.

Related Terms:

Thank you!
Was this helpful?

Questions about Security Testing?

Basics and Importance

  • What is security testing in software testing?

    Security testing is a process designed to uncover vulnerabilities, threats, and risks in a software application that could potentially lead to a loss of information, revenue, and reputation due to an attack or breach. It involves a comprehensive evaluation of the system to ensure that data is protected and the application functions as intended even when faced with malicious attacks.

    Security testing aims to identify all possible loopholes and weaknesses of the software system which might result in a loss of information, revenue, or reputation at the hands of employees or outsiders of the organization. It checks whether the application is susceptible to attacks, if the data is safe, and if the software is reliable.

    A variety of methods are employed in security testing, including but not limited to:

    • Static Analysis: Examining the code without executing it.
    • Dynamic Analysis: Testing and evaluating the code by executing it.
    • Interactive Analysis: Combining both static and dynamic analysis for a more thorough inspection.

    Security testing should be thorough and cover all possible security risks, including the less obvious ones. It is an essential part of the software development process, ensuring that the system is robust against various security threats.

    Automated tools play a significant role in security testing, helping to identify and address security issues more efficiently. However, manual testing is also crucial, as some security vulnerabilities may only be discovered through meticulous human analysis. Security testing should be an ongoing process, with regular tests conducted to ensure continuous security in the face of evolving threats.

  • Why is security testing important?

    Security testing is crucial because it proactively identifies and helps fix vulnerabilities within software, protecting against potential threats such as data breaches, unauthorized access, and other forms of cyberattacks. It ensures that sensitive data remains confidential, maintains the integrity of the software, and upholds availability, contributing to the overall trustworthiness of the system. By simulating various attack scenarios, security testing uncovers real-world risks, allowing developers to fortify the software against attacks that could lead to costly damages, both financially and reputationally.

    Automated security testing tools play a significant role in this process, enabling continuous and consistent testing across the application. They can quickly scan code for known vulnerabilities, perform dynamic analysis during runtime, and automate repetitive tasks, which is essential for integrating security into a CI/CD pipeline. Regular security testing, as part of a comprehensive testing strategy, is necessary to keep up with evolving threats and to ensure that new code changes do not introduce fresh vulnerabilities.

    In essence, security testing is not just about finding flaws; it's about safeguarding the application ecosystem and ensuring a secure experience for end-users. It's a critical component of a robust software development process, aligning with industry standards and compliance requirements, and ultimately supporting the resilience and reliability of software in the face of malicious activities.

  • What are the main objectives of security testing?

    The main objectives of security testing are to:

    • Identify vulnerabilities within the system to determine if unauthorized access is possible.
    • Protect data by ensuring that information is kept confidential and is not exposed to individuals or entities without proper authorization.
    • Maintain system integrity by confirming that applications and systems are free from flaws that could be exploited to alter data or operational capabilities.
    • Ensure availability so that systems and applications are accessible to authorized users when needed.
    • Verify compliance with industry regulations and standards to avoid legal repercussions and fines.
    • Safeguard functionality against security threats that could disrupt or degrade the performance of the software.
    • Build trust among users and stakeholders by demonstrating commitment to security best practices.

    These objectives are achieved through various methods such as vulnerability scanning, penetration testing, risk assessments, and employing automated tools for continuous security evaluation. Regular testing and adherence to best practices ensure that security measures are effective and up to date.

  • How does security testing fit into the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)?

    Security testing is integral to the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC), ensuring that security is baked into the product from the start rather than being an afterthought. It aligns with the shift-left approach, where testing is performed earlier in the development process.

    In the planning phase, security requirements are defined, and a threat model may be created. During design, security features and controls are specified. In the implementation phase, developers write code with security best practices in mind, and static application security testing (SAST) tools can scan the code for vulnerabilities.

    As the application moves into the testing phase, dynamic application security testing (DAST) tools assess the running application for security issues. This phase also includes manual security testing methods like penetration testing to uncover more complex vulnerabilities.

    In the deployment phase, configuration and infrastructure are reviewed for security before release. Post-deployment, continuous monitoring and intrusion detection systems (IDS) are used to detect and respond to threats in real-time.

    Throughout the SDLC, security testing is an iterative process. Regular updates and patches require retesting to maintain security standards. Integrating security testing into a CI/CD pipeline ensures continuous assessment and quick remediation of any new vulnerabilities.

    Security testing within the SDLC is not a one-time activity but a continuous commitment to maintaining the security posture of the software throughout its lifecycle.

  • What are the consequences of not conducting security testing?

    Not conducting security testing can lead to severe consequences:

    • Data Breaches: Without security testing, systems are vulnerable to unauthorized access, leading to potential exposure of sensitive data.
    • Financial Loss: Security incidents can result in direct financial loss due to theft, ransom payments, or fines for non-compliance with regulations.
    • Reputation Damage: A company's reputation can suffer significantly after a security breach, affecting customer trust and loyalty.
    • Legal Repercussions: Failing to protect user data can lead to legal action from affected parties or regulatory bodies.
    • Operational Disruption: Security breaches can disrupt business operations, causing downtime and loss of productivity.
    • Intellectual Property Theft: Without proper testing, proprietary information and intellectual property are at risk of being stolen.
    • Increased Attack Surface: Unidentified vulnerabilities can act as entry points for future attacks, increasing the overall risk.
    • Resource Wastage: Post-incident remediation often requires significant resources that could have been saved through proactive security testing.
    • Compromised User Safety: In cases where physical safety relies on software (e.g., in automotive or healthcare systems), security flaws can pose real-world dangers.

    Neglecting security testing is a risk that can lead to catastrophic outcomes for businesses and individuals alike. It is essential to integrate security testing into the SDLC to mitigate these risks effectively.

Types of Security Testing

  • What are the different types of security testing?

    Different types of security testing beyond the commonly discussed ones include:

    • Static Application Security Testing (SAST): Analyzes source code for security vulnerabilities without running the application. It's often integrated into the IDE.

    • Dynamic Application Security Testing (DAST): Tests the application while it's running, simulating attacks against a live system to find runtime vulnerabilities.

    • Interactive Application Security Testing (IAST): Combines SAST and DAST by testing applications from within using instrumentation. It identifies issues in real-time during manual or automated functional tests.

    • Security Configuration and Compliance Testing: Ensures that systems are configured according to security best practices and compliance standards.

    • Database Security Testing: Focuses on identifying security vulnerabilities within databases, such as weak passwords, SQL injection flaws, and excessive privileges.

    • API Security Testing: Evaluates the security of application programming interfaces (APIs) for issues like broken authentication, injection attacks, and improper asset management.

    • Mobile Security Testing: Addresses security concerns specific to mobile applications, including insecure data storage, weak server-side controls, and insufficient transport layer protection.

    • Cloud Security Testing: Assesses the security of cloud-based services and infrastructure, including misconfigurations, access control issues, and compliance with cloud security standards.

    Each type of security testing targets different aspects of software security and may employ a variety of tools and techniques to uncover potential vulnerabilities.

  • What is the difference between vulnerability scanning and security scanning?

    Vulnerability scanning and security scanning are both crucial components of a comprehensive security testing strategy, but they serve different purposes.

    Vulnerability scanning is a process that automatically checks for known vulnerabilities within a system. It uses a database of known issues and compares it against the scanned systems to identify potential weaknesses that could be exploited. Vulnerability scanners are typically used to identify outdated software, missing patches, or misconfigurations that could lead to security breaches.

    // Example of initiating a vulnerability scan using a hypothetical tool
      target: 'http://example.com',
      profile: 'standard',
      reportFormat: 'pdf'

    On the other hand, security scanning encompasses a broader range of activities aimed at detecting a wider array of security threats, including both known and unknown vulnerabilities. Security scans may involve the use of automated tools as well as manual techniques to uncover potential security issues. This can include checking for vulnerabilities, but also involves identifying malicious code, security misconfigurations, and other security threats that may not be cataloged in vulnerability databases.

    // Example of initiating a security scan using a hypothetical tool
      target: 'http://example.com',
      scanDepth: 'deep',
      includeManualChecks: true,
      reportFormat: 'html'

    In essence, vulnerability scanning is a subset of security scanning, focused specifically on identifying known vulnerabilities, while security scanning is a more comprehensive approach to uncovering and addressing a wide range of security threats.

  • What is penetration testing and how does it differ from other types of security testing?

    Penetration testing, often referred to as pen testing or ethical hacking, is a proactive and simulated cyber attack on a system to evaluate its security. Unlike other security tests that may focus on automated scanning for vulnerabilities, pen testing involves a more adversarial approach. Testers think and act like attackers to discover and exploit weaknesses, often with a combination of manual and automated techniques.

    The key differences between penetration testing and other security tests include:

    • Scope: Pen testing is typically more targeted, focusing on specific systems, applications, or even business processes to uncover potential security breaches.
    • Depth: It goes beyond identifying vulnerabilities; it also attempts to exploit them to understand the real-world impact of a breach.
    • Complexity: Pen tests often involve complex attack scenarios that could include social engineering, physical security breaches, and multi-layered network attacks.
    • Expertise: Requires a high level of expertise from the tester, who must be knowledgeable about the latest attack techniques and able to think creatively like an attacker.

    Penetration testing is essential for uncovering security issues that might not be detected by automated tools or standard vulnerability assessments. It provides a more realistic understanding of security posture and the potential for data breaches or other security incidents.

  • What is intrusion detection testing?

    Intrusion Detection Testing is a security testing method focused on monitoring and analyzing system events to detect unauthorized access or breaches. It involves simulating attacks to evaluate the effectiveness of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) which are designed to identify and potentially stop attackers before they can exploit vulnerabilities.

    During this testing, various attack scenarios are executed to ensure that the IDS is properly identifying and alerting on potential security incidents. The goal is to verify that the system can:

    • Detect a wide range of intrusions, from simple to complex.
    • Differentiate between normal traffic and potential threats.
    • Trigger appropriate alerts or actions when an intrusion is detected.

    This type of testing is crucial for maintaining the integrity of a system's security posture. It helps to ensure that the IDS is configured correctly and is capable of protecting the system against current and emerging threats.

    Automated tools are often used to streamline the testing process, allowing for the simulation of numerous and varied attack patterns. Tools such as Snort, Suricata, or OSSEC can be leveraged to automate intrusion detection testing.

    Intrusion Detection Testing is a subset of security testing that complements other methods like penetration testing and vulnerability scanning, providing a more defensive approach to security by actively seeking out signs of an attack in progress, rather than just identifying potential entry points.

  • Can you explain what is meant by security auditing?

    Security auditing is a comprehensive evaluation of an organization's information system by measuring how well it conforms to a set of established criteria. It involves ensuring that the system protects data, maintains functionality, and operates as intended. The audit typically assesses the security of the system's physical configuration and environment, software, information handling processes, and user practices.

    Security audits are often conducted by independent and certified professionals who use a variety of tools and methodologies to uncover vulnerabilities that could be exploited by attackers. Unlike penetration testing, which actively exploits weaknesses, security auditing is usually a more passive way of examining the system. It checks for compliance with security policies, laws, and regulations.

    Audits can include reviewing system access controls, evaluating the effectiveness of security measures, and ensuring that all security activities are documented and can be traced back to established policies and procedures. The goal is to identify areas where improvements are needed and to ensure that controls have been implemented correctly and are effective.

    Security auditing can be both manual and automated; automated tools can scan for misconfigurations, missing patches, or other common issues. However, the human element is crucial for interpreting results and understanding the context of any findings.

    In the context of test automation, security auditing might involve automated scripts that regularly check for security compliance as part of a CI/CD pipeline, ensuring that new code commits do not introduce security regressions.

Tools and Techniques

  • What are some common tools used in security testing?

    Common tools used in security testing include:

    • Static Application Security Testing (SAST) tools like SonarQube, Veracode, and Checkmarx that analyze source code for vulnerabilities without executing it.
    • Dynamic Application Security Testing (DAST) tools such as OWASP ZAP and Burp Suite that test applications during runtime to find issues like SQL injection and cross-site scripting.
    • Interactive Application Security Testing (IAST) tools like Contrast Security combine static and dynamic analysis for real-time vulnerability detection.
    • Software Composition Analysis (SCA) tools like Black Duck and WhiteSource identify known vulnerabilities in open-source components.
    • Threat Modeling tools such as Microsoft Threat Modeling Tool help identify potential threats and design countermeasures.
    • Penetration Testing tools like Metasploit and Kali Linux are used for simulating cyber attacks.
    • Vulnerability Scanners like Nessus and Qualys scan systems for known weaknesses.
    • Fuzzing tools such as AFL and Peach Fuzzer send malformed data to applications to uncover issues.
    • Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) systems like Splunk and IBM QRadar provide real-time analysis of security alerts.
    • Configuration Management Tools like Ansible, Chef, and Puppet ensure systems are configured securely.
    • Network Security Tools such as Wireshark and Nmap analyze network traffic and scan for open ports respectively.

    These tools are often integrated into CI/CD pipelines for continuous security assessment.

  • What is the role of automated tools in security testing?

    Automated tools in security testing serve to streamline and enhance the efficiency of identifying potential vulnerabilities within software applications. They are crucial for conducting repetitive and systematic checks that would be time-consuming and error-prone if done manually. These tools can scan codebases for known vulnerabilities, automate penetration tests, and simulate attacks on systems to assess their resilience.

    By integrating into the CI/CD pipeline, automated security tools enable continuous security checks, ensuring that vulnerabilities can be detected and addressed promptly. They support a shift-left approach, where security is considered earlier in the development process, rather than as an afterthought.

    Automated tools also aid in compliance by ensuring that software meets relevant security standards and regulations through consistent testing. They can generate reports and logs that provide insights into security posture and help in tracking improvements over time.

    Furthermore, these tools can be configured to perform fuzzing, which involves inputting large amounts of random data to a system in an attempt to cause it to crash, thereby uncovering security flaws. They can also be used for intrusion detection, constantly monitoring the system for unusual behavior that may indicate a security breach.

    In summary, automated tools are indispensable for conducting thorough and effective security testing, allowing for regular and systematic assessments that keep pace with the rapid development cycles of modern software engineering.

  • Can you explain the process of risk assessment in security testing?

    Risk assessment in security testing involves identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing potential vulnerabilities and threats to a system. It's a critical step to ensure that the most significant risks are addressed first, optimizing the use of resources and time.

    Process of Risk Assessment:

    1. Identify Assets: List all components of the system, including data, hardware, and software.

    2. Threat Modeling: Determine potential threats to each asset, such as unauthorized access or data breaches.

    3. Vulnerability Identification: Use tools and techniques to find weaknesses that could be exploited by threats.

    4. Impact Analysis: Assess the potential damage or loss that could result from each threat exploiting a vulnerability.

    5. Likelihood Determination: Estimate the probability of each threat occurring, considering existing controls and security measures.

    6. Risk Rating: Combine impact and likelihood to rate the level of risk for each threat-vulnerability pair.

    7. Mitigation Strategies: Develop strategies to manage, transfer, accept, or avoid risks based on their rating.

    8. Prioritization: Focus on the highest risks first, allocating resources to mitigate them effectively.

    9. Documentation: Record the findings and decisions for accountability and future reference.

    10. Review and Update: Regularly revisit the risk assessment to account for new threats, vulnerabilities, and changes in the business context.

    By conducting a thorough risk assessment, security testing can be more targeted and effective, ensuring that the most critical issues are addressed to protect the system and its data.

  • What techniques are used to perform security testing?

    Security testing employs various techniques to identify and mitigate risks. Static Application Security Testing (SAST) analyzes source code for vulnerabilities without executing it. Dynamic Application Security Testing (DAST) tests the application during runtime, simulating attacks on a running system. Interactive Application Security Testing (IAST) combines SAST and DAST by testing applications from within using instrumentation.

    Threat modeling is a proactive approach, identifying potential threats and vulnerabilities early in the design phase. Security code review is a manual examination of the source code for security flaws. API security testing focuses on verifying the security of application programming interfaces.

    Configuration and deployment management testing ensures secure deployment settings and network configurations. Database security testing checks for vulnerabilities in database systems and storage. Authentication and authorization testing verifies that access controls are implemented correctly.

    Session management testing ensures that user sessions are handled securely. Input validation testing checks for proper handling of user input to prevent injection attacks. Error handling testing examines the system's response to errors, ensuring that no sensitive information is leaked.

    Output encoding testing prevents data from being interpreted as executable code. Cryptography testing verifies the correct implementation and strength of encryption algorithms. Business logic testing assesses the application's business logic to prevent exploitation.

    Client-side testing evaluates the security of client-side scripts and browser interactions. Compliance testing checks adherence to relevant security standards and regulations. These techniques are essential for a comprehensive security testing strategy.

  • What is fuzzing and how is it used in security testing?

    Fuzzing, or fuzz testing, is a technique that involves providing invalid, unexpected, or random data as input to a computer program. The main purpose is to discover coding errors and security loopholes that could lead to crashes, memory leaks, or buffer overflows, which attackers might exploit.

    In the context of security testing, fuzzing is used to identify potential vulnerabilities by automatically injecting malformed data into the software and monitoring for exceptions, crashes, or failures that indicate a security issue. It's particularly useful for testing the robustness of input-handling code and can be applied to various levels, from simple file formats to complex network protocols.

    Fuzzing can be categorized into two main types:

    1. Black-box fuzzing: No knowledge of the program's internal workings is required. Testers feed random data into the system and observe the output.
    2. White-box fuzzing: Involves understanding the program's source code to create more sophisticated test cases that target specific parts of the software.

    Fuzzing is integrated into the security testing process using tools like AFL, Peach Fuzzer, or Boofuzz. These tools automate the creation and execution of test cases, making it easier to uncover issues that might not be found through manual testing.

    To maximize effectiveness, fuzzing should be combined with other security testing methods, such as code reviews and penetration testing, and integrated into the CI/CD pipeline for continuous security assurance.

Challenges and Best Practices

  • What are some challenges faced in security testing?

    Security testing faces several challenges:

    • Complexity: Modern systems are complex, with multiple layers and components, making it difficult to identify all potential security vulnerabilities.
    • Evolving Threats: Attackers constantly develop new techniques. Keeping tests up-to-date with these threats is challenging.
    • Resource Constraints: Security testing can be resource-intensive, requiring specialized skills and tools that may not be readily available.
    • False Positives/Negatives: Distinguishing between real threats and benign issues is difficult, leading to wasted effort or overlooked vulnerabilities.
    • Integration with DevOps: Incorporating security testing into fast-paced CI/CD pipelines without slowing down releases can be difficult.
    • Scope Definition: Defining the scope of security testing to be thorough yet feasible within time and budget constraints is challenging.
    • Environment Differences: Discrepancies between testing, staging, and production environments can lead to missed vulnerabilities.
    • Data Sensitivity: Testing with real data can lead to security and privacy concerns, while synthetic data may not reveal all issues.
    • Regulatory Compliance: Ensuring tests meet various legal and regulatory standards requires constant vigilance and adaptation.
    • Tool Limitations: No single tool can catch all issues, necessitating a combination of tools and manual testing, which can be complex to manage.

    Addressing these challenges requires a strategic approach, continuous learning, and investment in the right tools and skills.

  • What are some best practices for effective security testing?

    To ensure effective security testing, follow these best practices:

    • Adopt a Shift-Left approach: Integrate security testing early in the development process to identify vulnerabilities sooner and reduce remediation costs.
    • Implement Security as Code: Define and manage security policies as code to ensure consistency and traceability across environments.
    • Stay Informed: Keep up-to-date with the latest security threats and trends to anticipate and protect against emerging vulnerabilities.
    • Prioritize Tests: Use risk assessments to prioritize testing efforts on the most critical security risks.
    • Automate Where Possible: Leverage automated tools for repetitive and straightforward tests to increase coverage and efficiency.
    • Manual Expertise: Complement automated tools with manual testing for complex security scenarios that require human intuition and expertise.
    • Educate Your Team: Ensure that all team members are aware of security best practices and the importance of security testing.
    • Test Regularly: Perform security testing regularly, not just at the end of the development cycle, to catch issues early.
    • Peer Reviews: Conduct code reviews with a focus on security to foster a culture of security mindfulness.
    • Use Diverse Tools: Employ a variety of tools to cover different aspects of security and reduce the risk of tool-specific blind spots.
    • Stay Compliant: Ensure that your security testing meets relevant regulatory and compliance requirements.
    • Document and Track: Keep detailed records of security tests, findings, and remediation actions to monitor progress and inform future tests.

    By following these practices, you can build a robust security testing strategy that helps protect your software from threats and vulnerabilities.

  • How can security testing be integrated into a continuous integration/continuous deployment (CI/CD) pipeline?

    Integrating security testing into a CI/CD pipeline involves automating security checks to ensure that vulnerabilities are identified and addressed as early as possible. Here's how to do it:

    1. Static Application Security Testing (SAST): Integrate SAST tools to analyze source code for potential security issues. This should be done at the code commit stage.
      - name: SAST
        image: sast-tool-image
          - sast-tool --source .
    1. Dynamic Application Security Testing (DAST): Automate DAST tools to test running applications for runtime vulnerabilities. Trigger DAST after the application is deployed to a test environment.
      - name: DAST
        image: dast-tool-image
          - dast-tool --url http://test-env
    1. Dependency Scanning: Use tools to check for vulnerabilities in third-party libraries and dependencies. This can be part of the build process.
      - name: Dependency Scanning
        image: dependency-scan-tool-image
          - scan-dependencies
    1. Container Scanning: If using containers, scan images for vulnerabilities before they are pushed to the registry.
      - name: Container Scanning
        image: container-scan-tool-image
          - container-scan --image my-app:latest
    1. Secrets Detection: Prevent secrets from being exposed by scanning code repositories for credentials and other sensitive data.
      - name: Secrets Detection
        image: secrets-detection-tool-image
          - detect-secrets
    1. Compliance as Code: Define and enforce security policies as code to ensure compliance with security standards.
      - name: Compliance Check
        image: compliance-tool-image
          - compliance-check --policy security-policy.yml
    1. Automated Response: Implement automated responses to security findings, such as breaking the build, notifying the team, or creating an issue in the tracking system.

    By embedding these automated security checks into the CI/CD pipeline, you ensure continuous security assessment and reduce the risk of deploying insecure software.

  • How often should security testing be performed?

    Security testing should be performed regularly and throughout the SDLC. The frequency depends on several factors:

    • Release Cycle: For agile environments with frequent releases, security testing should be part of each iteration.
    • Changes Made: After any significant change to the codebase, especially those affecting security features or sensitive data handling.
    • Compliance Requirements: Certain industries mandate regular security assessments, aligning with those regulations is essential.
    • Threat Landscape: As new vulnerabilities are discovered, testing should be conducted to ensure the software is not susceptible.
    • Previous Security Incidents: If there have been past security breaches, testing frequency should increase to prevent recurrence.

    Incorporate security testing into CI/CD pipelines to automate the process. This ensures that security checks are performed consistently and results are available quickly. For example:

      - name: security_scan
          - run_security_tests.sh

    Continuous Security Testing is ideal, where automated scans and tests are triggered by code commits or on a daily/weekly basis. This aligns with DevSecOps practices, integrating security as a part of the development and operations process.

    In summary, the frequency of security testing is not one-size-fits-all; it should be tailored to the software's development practices, risk profile, and regulatory landscape. Regular and automated security testing is crucial for maintaining a robust security posture.

  • What is the role of a security tester in a software development team?

    The security tester plays a critical role in a software development team by focusing on identifying and mitigating security vulnerabilities within the application. They are responsible for:

    • Designing and executing security tests: Crafting test cases that specifically target security features and potential vulnerabilities.
    • Threat modeling: Analyzing the application to anticipate potential attack vectors and incorporating this analysis into test plans.
    • Collaborating with developers: Working closely with the development team to ensure security considerations are integrated throughout the development process.
    • Incident response: Assisting in the development of protocols for responding to discovered security incidents.
    • Educating the team: Raising awareness about security best practices and keeping the team updated on the latest security threats and trends.
    • Compliance checks: Ensuring the software meets relevant security standards and regulations.
    • Security tool integration: Integrating security testing tools into the development pipeline and ensuring they are used effectively.
    • Reporting: Communicating findings to stakeholders and recommending remediation strategies.

    Security testers must have a deep understanding of security principles, be proficient with various security testing tools, and stay abreast of the latest security threats. Their goal is to ensure that the software is as resilient as possible against malicious attacks, protecting both the users and the organization.

AboutQuestionsDiscord ForumBrowser ExtensionTagsQA Jobs

Rayrun is a community for QA engineers. I am constantly looking for new ways to add value to people learning Playwright and other browser automation frameworks. If you have feedback, email luc@ray.run.