← Back to QA Wiki

Definition of Accessibility Testing

Accessibility testing ensures mobile and web applications are usable by everyone, including individuals with disabilities such as visual or hearing impairments, and other physical or cognitive challenges.

Related Terms:

Thank you!
Was this helpful?

Questions about Accessibility Testing?

Basics and Importance

  • What is accessibility testing?

    Accessibility testing is the process of ensuring that software and web applications are usable by people with a wide range of disabilities, including visual, auditory, physical, speech, cognitive, language, learning, and neurological disabilities. This form of testing checks that the application can be effectively operated and understood by individuals using assistive technologies such as screen readers, braille terminals, and alternative input devices.

    Key aspects of accessibility testing include:

    • Navigability: Can users navigate through the application using a keyboard or assistive devices?
    • Readability: Is the content readable and understandable for users with visual impairments?
    • Compatibility: Does the application work with various assistive technologies?
    • Semantic HTML: Are HTML elements used to convey meaning and structure?
    • Dynamic Content: Is dynamic content accessible through screen readers?
    • Visual Design: Is there sufficient contrast between text and background for users with low vision?
    • Multimedia: Are video and audio contents accessible with captions and transcripts?

    Techniques involve both automated and manual testing methods. Automated tools can scan for certain types of issues, like missing alt text or incorrect ARIA roles, while manual testing might include using the application with a screen reader or navigating via keyboard only.

    Code example for checking image alt text with an automated tool:

    it('should have alt text for all images', () => {
      cy.get('img').each(($img) => {

    In summary, accessibility testing is a critical component of software quality assurance that ensures inclusivity and legal compliance.

  • Why is accessibility testing important?

    Accessibility testing is crucial because it ensures that all users, including those with disabilities, can access and use software products effectively. By identifying and addressing accessibility barriers, it promotes inclusive design and enhances the user experience for a diverse audience. This type of testing is not just a matter of ethical responsibility and user advocacy but also a legal requirement in many jurisdictions, helping organizations to comply with laws and avoid potential legal repercussions.

    Moreover, accessibility testing can lead to improved SEO, as search engines favor accessible websites, potentially increasing the site's visibility and reach. It also encourages best coding practices, resulting in cleaner, more maintainable code. By integrating accessibility considerations early in the development process, companies can reduce the cost and effort required to retrofit accessibility features later on.

    In summary, accessibility testing is important because it:

    • Promotes inclusivity by ensuring that software is usable by people with a wide range of abilities.
    • Fulfills legal obligations, helping organizations to comply with accessibility standards and avoid legal issues.
    • Enhances SEO, potentially increasing the visibility and reach of the software.
    • Encourages better coding practices, leading to more maintainable and robust software.

    Ignoring accessibility testing can lead to a narrower user base, potential legal challenges, and missed opportunities for product improvement.

  • What is the goal of accessibility testing?

    The goal of accessibility testing is to ensure that software products are usable by people with a wide range of abilities and disabilities. This includes verifying that the product conforms to accessibility standards and guidelines, such as the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) and Section 508. By doing so, it aims to provide an inclusive user experience where individuals with impairments, such as visual, auditory, physical, speech, cognitive, language, learning, and neurological disabilities, can navigate, interact with, and access content effectively.

    Accessibility testing also seeks to identify and eliminate barriers that may prevent people with disabilities from using the product, ensuring that all users have equal access to information and functionality. It involves a combination of automated tools and manual techniques to cover various aspects that might not be captured by automation alone.

    Ultimately, the goal is to uphold legal and ethical standards, avoid discrimination, and expand market reach by making products accessible to a broader audience. It's not just about compliance; it's about embracing diversity and enhancing user satisfaction.

  • How does accessibility testing benefit users?

    Accessibility testing benefits users by ensuring that software products are usable by people with a wide range of abilities and disabilities. This inclusivity allows for a broader audience to interact with applications, websites, or tools effectively, regardless of their physical or cognitive challenges. By accommodating assistive technologies such as screen readers, braille terminals, and voice recognition software, accessibility testing helps in creating a more equitable user experience.

    For users with disabilities, accessibility testing can mean the difference between being able to perform essential tasks online and facing significant barriers. It enables independent navigation and interaction, which is crucial for personal autonomy and dignity. Moreover, it can reduce frustration and increase efficiency for users, as they can access and use features and information without unnecessary hindrance.

    In addition to direct user benefits, accessibility testing can also lead to improved usability for all users. Many accessibility features, such as clear navigation and readable fonts, enhance the overall user experience. By focusing on accessibility, developers can inadvertently improve the design and functionality for a wider user base, leading to a more intuitive and user-friendly product.

    Lastly, accessibility testing can help in avoiding legal repercussions that may arise from non-compliance with accessibility laws and regulations, ensuring that the software is not only inclusive but also legally compliant.

  • What is the impact of not conducting accessibility testing?

    Not conducting accessibility testing can have significant impacts:

    • Excludes users: Without accessibility testing, software may not be usable by people with disabilities, effectively excluding them from accessing the product or service.
    • Legal repercussions: Failing to comply with legal standards like the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) or Section 508 can lead to lawsuits and financial penalties.
    • Brand damage: Inaccessibility can harm a company's reputation, as it suggests a lack of consideration for all users.
    • Reduced market reach: Ignoring accessibility testing limits the potential user base, as people with disabilities represent a substantial market segment.
    • Poor user experience: Accessibility issues can lead to a frustrating user experience, not just for users with disabilities but also for those in temporary or situational limitations.
    • Increased costs: Identifying and fixing accessibility issues late in development or post-release is often more expensive than addressing them during the regular testing cycle.

    In summary, neglecting accessibility testing can have ethical, legal, financial, and reputational consequences, while also compromising the overall quality and usability of the software.

Standards and Guidelines

  • What are the key standards and guidelines for accessibility testing?

    Key standards and guidelines for accessibility testing include:

    • Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG): The primary international standards for web accessibility, detailing how to make web content more accessible to people with disabilities. Follow the latest version, currently WCAG 2.1, and aim for at least AA level compliance.

    • Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA): Defines a way to make web content and web applications more accessible to people with disabilities. Use ARIA roles and properties to enhance the accessibility of dynamic content and complex user interface components.

    • Section 508: U.S. federal law requiring all electronic and information technology developed, procured, maintained, or used by the federal government be accessible to people with disabilities. Ensure your software meets these standards if it will be used by federal agencies or contractors.

    • EN 301 549: European standard for digital accessibility, specifying requirements for ICT products and services to ensure they are more accessible to people with disabilities.

    • ISO/IEC 40500: International standard identical to WCAG 2.0, providing a stable, referenceable technical standard.

    When conducting accessibility testing, adhere to these guidelines:

    • Automate what you can: Use automated tools to catch easy-to-detect issues, but remember they can't catch everything.

    • Manual testing: Complement automated testing with manual checks, especially for subjective criteria like ease of navigation and understanding.

    • User testing: Involve real users with disabilities in testing to get authentic feedback on accessibility.

    • Continuous compliance: Integrate accessibility testing into your continuous integration/continuous deployment (CI/CD) pipeline to ensure ongoing compliance.

    • Stay updated: Keep abreast of updates to accessibility standards and guidelines, as they evolve over time.

  • What is WCAG and why is it important?

    WCAG, or the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, is a set of recommendations for making web content more accessible to people with disabilities. It's developed through the W3C process in cooperation with individuals and organizations around the world, aiming to provide a single shared standard for web content accessibility that meets the needs of individuals, organizations, and governments internationally.

    WCAG is important because it serves as a global benchmark for web accessibility, ensuring that websites, applications, and digital tools are usable by everyone, including those with auditory, cognitive, neurological, physical, speech, and visual disabilities. Compliance with WCAG helps in removing barriers that prevent interaction with, or access to websites, by people with disabilities. When sites are correctly designed, developed, and edited, all users have equal access to information and functionality.

    Following WCAG guidelines is not only a matter of ethical responsibility and inclusivity but also a legal requirement in many jurisdictions. Non-compliance can lead to legal repercussions and damage to an organization's reputation. Moreover, adhering to WCAG can improve the overall user experience and potentially increase the audience reach, as accessible sites tend to be more SEO-friendly and have better usability for all users, not just those with disabilities.

  • What are the different levels of WCAG compliance?

    WCAG compliance is categorized into three levels of conformance:

    • Level A: The most basic web accessibility features. Websites must satisfy this level in order not to exclude groups of people with disabilities. It includes things like providing text alternatives for non-text content and ensuring that navigation is possible using a keyboard.

    • Level AA: Deals with the biggest and most common barriers for disabled users. This level introduces standards such as providing captions for audio content and ensuring that text is readable and understandable. Meeting this level is often a legal requirement in many organizations and governments.

    • Level AAA: The highest and most stringent level of WCAG compliance. This level includes a wider range of criteria to improve accessibility for different types of disabilities. It encompasses all Level A and AA requirements and adds more, such as providing sign language interpretation for audio content and ensuring that live audio content has a lower background noise level. However, it is not always possible to satisfy all Level AAA success criteria for some content, so it is not a strict requirement for full compliance.

    Each level builds on the previous one, with AAA including all criteria from AA and A. When aiming for compliance, it's important to note that Level AA is typically the target standard for most websites, as it provides a balance between improving accessibility and being realistically achievable.

  • What is Section 508 and how does it relate to accessibility testing?

    Section 508 is a part of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 which requires federal agencies to make their electronic and information technology (EIT) accessible to people with disabilities. In the context of software test automation, Section 508 compliance means ensuring that applications and websites are usable by individuals with a range of disabilities, including visual, auditory, physical, speech, cognitive, language, learning, and neurological disabilities.

    To comply with Section 508, automated tests should include checks for:

    • Keyboard navigability: Ensure all functions can be operated via keyboard commands without requiring a mouse.
    • Screen reader compatibility: Verify that content is structured in a way that screen readers can interpret and vocalize it correctly.
    • Color contrast: Test for sufficient contrast between text and background to aid users with visual impairments.
    • Alternative text for images: Check that all images have descriptive alt text for users who cannot see them.
    • Captioning and audio descriptions: Ensure multimedia content has captions and descriptions for users with hearing or visual impairments.

    Automated tools can assist in identifying some Section 508 compliance issues, but manual testing is also necessary to fully ensure accessibility. Test automation engineers should integrate both automated and manual accessibility checks into their testing strategy to cover the broad spectrum of requirements outlined in Section 508. This integration helps in creating an inclusive user experience and mitigates legal and reputational risks associated with non-compliance.

  • What are ARIA roles and how are they used in accessibility testing?

    ARIA roles are part of the Accessible Rich Internet Applications specification, which defines ways to make web content and web applications more accessible to people with disabilities. ARIA roles provide semantic information about features, structures, and behaviors, allowing assistive technologies to convey appropriate information to users.

    In accessibility testing, ARIA roles are used to:

    • Identify UI elements to assistive technologies, such as screen readers, by defining roles like button, dialog, menu, and progressbar.
    • Communicate the state of UI elements with roles like aria-expanded for collapsible content or aria-checked for checkboxes.
    • Define the structure of web content with roles such as navigation, main, complementary, and contentinfo.

    To test ARIA roles:

    1. Verify correct implementation of roles and properties using automated tools or manual inspection.
    2. Ensure roles match the function of the element (e.g., role="button" for clickable elements).
    3. Check for dynamic changes in ARIA states and properties with user interaction.
    4. Use screen readers to confirm that roles and states are announced correctly.

    Example of a button with ARIA role:

    <button role="button" aria-pressed="false">Toggle</button>

    In this example, the role="button" communicates the element's function, and aria-pressed indicates the toggle state.

    Test automation engineers should integrate ARIA role validation into their testing suites to ensure web applications are accessible and provide the necessary context to assistive technologies.

Tools and Techniques

  • What tools are commonly used for accessibility testing?

    Commonly used tools for accessibility testing include:

    • Axe: An open-source library that can be integrated into testing frameworks. It's available as a browser extension and as a CLI tool.
      npm install axe-core --save-dev
    • WAVE (Web Accessibility Evaluation Tool): A suite of evaluation tools that help authors make their web content more accessible. It includes a browser extension and online service.
    • Lighthouse: An open-source, automated tool for improving the quality of web pages. It has audits for performance, accessibility, progressive web apps, and more.
      lighthouse https://example.com --only-categories=accessibility
    • JAWS (Job Access With Speech): A screen reader for Windows that allows visually impaired users to read the screen either with a text-to-speech output or by a Braille display.
    • NVDA (NonVisual Desktop Access): A free and open-source screen reader for Windows.
    • VoiceOver: A screen reader built into Apple Inc.'s macOS and iOS operating systems.
    • Color Contrast Analyzers: Tools like the Colour Contrast Analyser (CCA) help you determine the legibility of text and the contrast of visual elements.
    • Tenon.io: An API-first, automated accessibility testing tool that can be integrated into development pipelines.
    • Pa11y: An automated accessibility testing tool that runs HTML CodeSniffer from the command line for programmatic accessibility reporting.
      pa11y http://example.com
    • Accessibility Insights: A tool that provides guidance and solutions for accessibility testing, available as a browser extension and Windows application.

    These tools help automate the detection of accessibility issues, which can then be addressed to ensure that software products are usable by people with a wide range of disabilities.

  • What are some manual techniques for accessibility testing?

    Manual techniques for accessibility testing involve a combination of user simulations, assistive technology usage, and checklists to ensure that software can be used by people with various disabilities. Here are some techniques:

    • Keyboard Navigation: Navigate the application using only the keyboard to ensure that all interactive elements are reachable and usable without a mouse.
    • Screen Reader Testing: Use screen readers like NVDA or JAWS to experience the application as a visually impaired user would. Check for proper reading of elements, order, and context.
    • Color Contrast Analysis: Manually check color combinations using tools like the Colour Contrast Analyser to ensure sufficient contrast for users with color vision deficiencies.
    • Manual Code Inspection: Review HTML/CSS code for semantic structure, proper use of headings, labels, and roles that assistive technologies rely on.
    • Zoom and Magnification: Test the application under different levels of zoom and magnification to ensure that the content remains readable and functional.
    • Content Readability: Evaluate the content for readability, ensuring that language is clear and simple, which benefits users with cognitive disabilities.
    • Focus Management: Ensure that the focus order is logical and visible, which is crucial for users who navigate via keyboard or assistive technologies.
    • User Testing with Disabled Participants: Engage users with disabilities in the testing process to get direct feedback on the accessibility of the application.

    These manual methods complement automated testing by covering aspects that require human judgment and perspective, which are often missed by automated tools.

  • How can automated tools be used in accessibility testing?

    Automated tools streamline accessibility testing by rapidly scanning web pages and applications for common accessibility issues. They can be integrated into CI/CD pipelines to ensure continuous compliance with accessibility standards. Tools like axe-core, WAVE, or Lighthouse offer APIs and plugins for integration with test frameworks such as Selenium, Jest, or Cypress.

    Use automated tools to:

    • Detect code-level issues: Identify problems like missing alt text, improper use of ARIA roles, and color contrast deficiencies.
    • Run regression tests: Ensure new code doesn't introduce accessibility regressions.
    • Generate reports: Create detailed reports for technical and non-technical stakeholders.
    • Prioritize fixes: Highlight critical issues that impact users the most.

    Example of integrating an accessibility testing tool with a test framework:

    const axe = require('axe-core');
    const { browser, by, element } = require('protractor');
    describe('Accessibility checks', () => {
      it('should analyze the page', async () => {
        await browser.get('https://example.com');
        const results = await axe.run();
        expect(results.violations.length).toBe(0, 'Accessibility violations found');

    Automated tools are not a replacement for manual testing or user testing with people with disabilities, but they are a valuable first step in identifying and mitigating accessibility barriers. They help maintain a baseline of accessibility and reduce the number of issues that require manual review.

  • What are the limitations of automated accessibility testing tools?

    Automated accessibility testing tools have several limitations:

    • False Positives/Negatives: Tools may report issues that aren't actual barriers (false positives) or miss real issues (false negatives).
    • Contextual Understanding: They lack the ability to understand context and meaning, which can be critical for certain accessibility checks.
    • User Experience: Automated tools can't fully assess user experience, including ease of navigation and comprehension for users with disabilities.
    • Dynamic Content: They often struggle with dynamic content that changes in response to user actions or with complex JavaScript interactions.
    • Visual Design and Readability: Tools may not accurately judge visual design elements, such as contrast and readability, especially in graphical content.
    • Keyboard Navigation: While some tools can simulate keyboard navigation, they may not effectively identify all issues encountered by keyboard-only users.
    • Screen Reader Compatibility: Testing with actual screen readers is necessary, as tools can't replicate the experience of a screen reader user.
    • Assistive Technology Variance: There's a wide range of assistive technologies, and automated tools can't test compatibility with all of them.
    • Comprehensive Testing: No single tool can cover all accessibility guidelines; multiple tools and manual testing are often required for thorough testing.

    To mitigate these limitations, combine automated testing with manual testing and user testing with people who have disabilities. This approach provides a more accurate and holistic assessment of accessibility.

  • How can you test for different types of disabilities?

    Testing for different types of disabilities involves simulating the user experience of individuals with various impairments. This includes visual, auditory, motor, and cognitive disabilities. Here are some strategies:

    • Visual Impairments: Use screen readers like NVDA or JAWS to navigate your application. Ensure that all content is readable and that navigation is possible without visual cues. Test with different contrast settings and font sizes to accommodate users with low vision.

    • Auditory Impairments: Verify that all audio content has text alternatives, such as captions or transcripts. Test that the application is usable without sound and that no essential information is conveyed through audio alone.

    • Motor Impairments: Test keyboard navigation by using only the tab key, enter, space, and arrow keys. Ensure that all interactive elements are reachable and operable with the keyboard. Consider the needs of users who cannot use a mouse or have limited fine motor control.

    • Cognitive Impairments: Simplify and structure content to support users with cognitive disabilities. Test for consistent navigation and predictable interactions. Use clear language and provide the ability to extend time limits where applicable.

    Incorporate assistive technologies and user preferences in your testing environment to simulate different disability scenarios. This includes voice control software, alternative input devices, and browser extensions that modify display settings.

    Remember, while automated tools can catch many accessibility issues, they cannot detect all nuances of user experience for people with disabilities. Manual testing with real users or experts in accessibility is crucial for comprehensive evaluation.

Implementation and Best Practices

  • What are some best practices for implementing accessibility testing?

    Best practices for implementing accessibility testing include:

    • Integrate accessibility testing early in the development process to identify and fix issues when they are less costly to resolve.
    • Educate your team on accessibility principles and the importance of inclusive design.
    • Create a checklist based on WCAG guidelines to ensure all accessibility requirements are met.
    • Use a combination of automated and manual testing to cover the breadth and depth of accessibility issues.
    • Automate repetitive tasks such as color contrast checks and keyboard navigation to save time and resources.
    • Conduct user testing with people who have disabilities to get real-world feedback on the accessibility of your product.
    • Regularly review and update your accessibility tests to keep up with new standards and technologies.
    • Document accessibility issues with clear descriptions, screenshots, or videos to help developers understand and fix the problems.
    • Prioritize issues based on their impact on users and the complexity of the fix.
    • Include accessibility testing in your definition of done to ensure features are not considered complete until they are accessible.
    • Leverage browser developer tools and accessibility plugins to quickly identify issues during development.
    • Stay updated with legal requirements and industry standards to ensure compliance and avoid potential legal consequences.

    By following these practices, you can create a more inclusive product and improve the overall user experience for individuals with disabilities.

  • How can you incorporate accessibility testing into the software development lifecycle?

    Incorporating accessibility testing into the software development lifecycle (SDLC) involves integrating it into each phase to ensure that accessibility is considered from the outset and throughout the process.

    During the requirements gathering phase, define accessibility criteria based on standards like WCAG and Section 508. Specify the required compliance level and include user stories that address the needs of people with disabilities.

    In the design phase, use wireframes and prototypes to evaluate accessibility considerations, such as color contrast and navigation order. Tools like color contrast analyzers can be employed early to avoid design reworks later.

    In the development phase, implement semantic HTML and ARIA roles to enhance accessibility. Developers should use automated tools to run preliminary checks and address issues as they code. For example:

    // Example of an automated test using Axe-core
    const { AxePuppeteer } = require('axe-puppeteer');
    async function checkAccessibility(page) {
      const results = await new AxePuppeteer(page).analyze();

    During the testing phase, include accessibility in your test cases and execute both automated and manual tests. Automated tests can catch a range of issues, but manual testing is crucial for assessing usability from a human perspective.

    In the deployment phase, perform a final accessibility review and validation to ensure that no new issues have been introduced.

    Post-deployment, establish a feedback loop with users to catch any accessibility issues that might have been missed and to remain responsive to user needs. Regularly update your test suites and tools to adapt to evolving standards and technologies.

    By embedding accessibility into the SDLC, you ensure it is an ongoing consideration, reducing the risk of costly rework and ensuring a more inclusive product.

  • How can you ensure ongoing accessibility compliance?

    To ensure ongoing accessibility compliance in software test automation:

    • Integrate accessibility checks into your regular test suites. Use tools like Axe or Wave to automate these checks.
    • Implement continuous integration (CI) processes that include accessibility tests, ensuring they are run with every build.

    jobs: accessibility_test: runs-on: ubuntu-latest steps: - name: Run accessibility checks run: npm run test:accessibility

    - **Adopt a shift-left approach**, incorporating accessibility testing early in the development cycle to catch issues sooner.
    - **Update your test cases** regularly to cover new accessibility standards and guidelines as they evolve.
    - **Educate your team** on accessibility importance, encouraging developers to write accessible code from the start.
    - **Conduct periodic manual audits** to catch issues that automated tools might miss.
    - **Use real user metrics** (RUM) to monitor how actual users interact with your application, which can help identify accessibility barriers.
    - **Engage with users with disabilities** for feedback and incorporate their insights into your testing strategy.
    - **Stay informed** about legal requirements and industry best practices to ensure compliance with the latest standards.
    By embedding these practices into your development and testing workflows, you can maintain a high level of accessibility compliance over time.
  • What are some common accessibility issues to look for?

    Common accessibility issues to look for during testing include:

    • Text alternatives: Missing alt text for images, which is crucial for screen reader users.
    • Keyboard navigation: Inability to navigate the site using a keyboard alone, which affects users with motor disabilities.
    • Color contrast: Insufficient contrast between text and background, making content hard to read for users with visual impairments.
    • Focus indicators: Lack of visible focus indicators, which are essential for users who rely on keyboard navigation.
    • Form labels: Unlabeled forms that are difficult for screen reader users to interpret.
    • ARIA misusage: Incorrect or missing ARIA attributes that lead to poor screen reader experiences.
    • Time-based media: Absence of captions or transcripts for audio and video content.
    • Resizable text: Text that cannot be resized or zoomed without loss of content or functionality.
    • Language identification: Missing language attributes that inform screen readers about the language of the text.
    • Error identification: Inadequate error messaging that fails to guide users through correcting mistakes.
    • Consistent navigation: Inconsistent navigation order or naming, causing confusion for users who rely on patterns.
    • Dynamic content updates: Lack of alerts for screen readers when dynamic content updates occur.

    These issues can be identified through a combination of automated tools and manual testing to ensure a comprehensive accessibility evaluation.

  • How can you make a website more accessible?

    To enhance website accessibility:

    • Use semantic HTML to structure content, ensuring elements like headings (<h1> to <h6>), lists (<ul>, <ol>), and buttons (<button>) are used correctly.
    • Provide text alternatives (alt attributes) for non-text content like images.
    • Ensure sufficient contrast between text and background colors.
    • Make all functionality available from a keyboard by using focusable elements and managing focus order.
    • Create labels for interactive elements using the <label> element or aria-label and aria-labelledby.
    • Avoid or provide alternatives to content that causes seizures, such as flashing lights.
    • Provide clear and consistent navigation.
    • Include skip navigation links to allow users to bypass repetitive content.
    • Ensure that forms are accessible, with clear labels and error messages.
    • Use ARIA landmarks to define regions of the page (<nav>, <main>, <aside>, etc.).
    • Test with screen readers and other assistive technologies to identify issues.
    • Offer options to control or stop animations, videos, and audio.
    • Design responsive layouts that work on various devices and screen sizes.
    • Use accessible color palettes and consider color blindness.
    • Provide captions and transcripts for audio and video content.
    • Ensure dynamic content updates are communicated to assistive technologies using ARIA live regions.
    • Test with real users with disabilities to get feedback on the accessibility of your site.

    Remember, accessibility is an ongoing commitment and should be integrated into regular development and testing cycles.

AboutQuestionsDiscord ForumBrowser ExtensionTagsQA Jobs

Rayrun is a community for QA engineers. I am constantly looking for new ways to add value to people learning Playwright and other browser automation frameworks. If you have feedback, email luc@ray.run.