← Back to QA Wiki

Definition of Test Pyramid

A framework that assists developers in evaluating the mix of tests in an automated suite. It aims to expedite the detection of issues when changes are made to the codebase.
Thank you!
Was this helpful?

Questions about Test Pyramid?

Basics and Importance

  • What is the Test Pyramid?

    The Test Pyramid is a metaphor that describes the optimal distribution of various types of automated tests in a software project. It emphasizes having a larger number of low-level unit tests compared to higher-level integration and end-to-end tests. The pyramid serves as a guideline for creating a balanced test portfolio and is crucial for ensuring a robust and maintainable test suite.

    Implementing the Test Pyramid involves writing tests at three primary levels:

    1. Unit tests: These are the foundation and should be the most numerous. They're quick to run and focus on small units of code.
    2. Integration tests: These test interactions between components and are fewer than unit tests.
    3. End-to-end tests: At the top, these are the fewest and most expensive to run, covering complete user flows.

    The interaction between levels is hierarchical. Unit tests validate individual components, integration tests check component interactions, and end-to-end tests verify the system as a whole. This structure supports quick feedback and defect localization.

    To allocate resources effectively, focus on automating more tests at the base, ensuring a stable and fast-feedback foundation. As you move up the pyramid, automate judiciously, targeting critical integration points and key user journeys.

    Best practices include maintaining a high unit test to other test ratios, keeping tests independent and fast, and ensuring tests are reliable. Avoid common mistakes like inverting the pyramid with too many end-to-end tests or neglecting any level.

    The Test Pyramid informs automation strategy by highlighting the importance of testing at multiple levels and helps manage complexity by categorizing tests based on their scope and impact. Challenges in automation vary by level, with unit tests typically being the easiest to automate and end-to-end tests the most complex. The pyramid also aids in deciding which tests to automate by emphasizing the value of quick, reliable tests that provide fast feedback.

  • Why is the Test Pyramid important in software testing?

    The Test Pyramid is crucial in software testing as it serves as a guiding principle for creating a balanced and effective test suite. It emphasizes the importance of having a larger number of low-level unit tests compared to high-level end-to-end tests, which are more expensive to run and maintain. By focusing on this structure, teams can ensure that most testing is quick and reliable, leading to faster feedback cycles.

    Adhering to the pyramid helps in identifying defects early in the development cycle, which is typically less costly to fix than those discovered later in higher levels. It also encourages test isolation, where unit tests cover individual components in isolation, integration tests check the interaction between components, and end-to-end tests validate the entire system. This isolation simplifies troubleshooting and defect localization.

    Moreover, the pyramid supports a shift-left approach, where testing is performed earlier in the development process. This is aligned with Agile practices that advocate for continuous testing and integration.

    In terms of automation, the pyramid guides teams to invest more in automating unit and integration tests, which are more stable and less prone to flakiness compared to UI tests. This strategy leads to a more robust and maintainable test suite. It also aids in resource allocation, ensuring that efforts and tools are focused where they provide the most value, and helps avoid common pitfalls like over-reliance on UI tests, which can create a fragile and slow test suite.

  • What are the different levels of the Test Pyramid?

    The Test Pyramid consists of three primary levels:

    • Unit Tests: The base and largest section of the pyramid, focusing on testing individual components or functions in isolation. These tests are quick to run and should be numerous, covering the majority of the test suite.
    function add(a, b) {
      return a + b;
    // Unit test for the add function
    describe('add', () => {
      it('should return the sum of two numbers', () => {
        expect(add(1, 2)).toBe(3);
    • Integration Tests: The middle layer, which tests the interactions between integrated units or services. These are fewer than unit tests and ensure that different parts of the application work together as expected.
    // Integration test example for a service that uses a database
    describe('UserService', () => {
      it('should retrieve a user from the database', async () => {
        const user = await UserService.getUser('userId');
    • End-to-End Tests (E2E): The top and smallest section, which tests the flow of an application from start to finish. These simulate real user scenarios and are the most comprehensive but also the most time-consuming and brittle.
    // E2E test example using a browser automation tool
    describe('User Login', () => {
      it('should allow a user to log in', async () => {
        await page.goto('https://example.com/login');
        await page.type('#username', 'user1');
        await page.type('#password', 'pass123');
        await page.click('#submit');
        await page.waitForSelector('#welcome');
        expect(await page.content()).toContain('Welcome, user1');

    Each level serves a specific purpose and provides feedback at different granularities, from detailed unit level to comprehensive system-wide testing.

  • How does the Test Pyramid help in maintaining the balance between different types of testing?

    The Test Pyramid supports maintaining a balance between different types of testing by advocating for a greater number of low-level tests (like unit tests) and fewer high-level tests (like end-to-end tests). This structure ensures that most issues are caught early and quickly at the unit level, where tests are fast, isolated, and cheaper to write and maintain.

    By focusing on a strong foundation of unit tests, the pyramid minimizes the reliance on slower and more brittle end-to-end tests, which are more expensive to run and maintain. This balance is crucial because it helps in identifying the appropriate granularity for each test case, ensuring that defects are caught at the most efficient level of testing.

    Integration tests serve as the middle layer, providing a safety net to catch issues that unit tests might miss, particularly those involving the interaction between components. However, they are fewer in number compared to unit tests, striking a balance between coverage and test execution speed.

    The pyramid's structure guides test automation engineers to allocate their efforts and resources effectively, ensuring that time is not wasted on excessive high-level tests that could be covered by more granular tests. It also helps in managing the complexity of automated tests by promoting a hierarchical approach to test creation and maintenance.

    By adhering to the Test Pyramid's principles, engineers can create a scalable and maintainable test suite that optimizes feedback loops and contributes to the overall quality and robustness of the software.

  • What is the role of the Test Pyramid in Agile development?

    In Agile development, the Test Pyramid serves as a strategic guide for creating and maintaining a sustainable and scalable test suite. It emphasizes the need for a large base of low-level unit tests that run quickly and provide fast feedback on the code's health. As you move up the pyramid, the number of tests decreases, with integration tests ensuring that different parts of the system work together, and a smaller number of high-level end-to-end tests validating critical user journeys.

    The pyramid supports Agile principles by advocating for continuous testing throughout the development cycle. This aligns with the iterative nature of Agile, where features are developed incrementally and require constant validation. By following the pyramid's guidance, teams can avoid test suite bloat, where the over-reliance on slower, flakier high-level tests can lead to long feedback cycles that are antithetical to Agile's quick adaptation mantra.

    Moreover, the Test Pyramid encourages test-driven development (TDD) and behavior-driven development (BDD) practices, which are core to Agile methodologies. By writing tests at the appropriate level before the corresponding code, developers can ensure that the system is built with testability in mind, leading to higher quality and more maintainable code.

    In summary, the Test Pyramid's role in Agile development is to provide a framework that ensures testing is efficient, effective, and aligned with Agile's fast-paced, iterative approach, ultimately leading to a robust and reliable software delivery process.

Components of Test Pyramid

  • What is unit testing in the context of the Test Pyramid?

    Unit testing is the foundation of the Test Pyramid, focusing on verifying the smallest parts of an application in isolation, typically individual functions or methods. These tests are written and executed by developers, often using a xUnit-style framework (e.g., JUnit for Java, NUnit for .NET, or pytest for Python).

    Here's a basic example in TypeScript using Jest:

    import { add } from './math';
    test('adds 1 + 2 to equal 3', () => {
      expect(add(1, 2)).toBe(3);

    In this context, unit tests are fast, cheap to write, and provide immediate feedback on code correctness. They are crucial for refactoring and help in maintaining a clean codebase. Since they are at the bottom of the pyramid, a large number of unit tests form a solid base, ensuring that individual components work correctly before they interact with each other at higher levels of testing (integration and end-to-end). This approach minimizes the risk of defects in the system's foundation and promotes a more stable and reliable software development lifecycle.

  • What is integration testing in the context of the Test Pyramid?

    Integration testing in the context of the Test Pyramid focuses on verifying the interactions between different modules or services within an application. It sits above unit testing and below end-to-end testing in the pyramid, serving as a middle layer that ensures various parts of the system work together as expected.

    Unlike unit tests that isolate individual components, integration tests combine those components and test the combined functionality. This can include testing interactions with databases, APIs, or other external services and systems. The goal is to detect interface defects and ensure that integrated components behave correctly under various scenarios.

    Integration tests are typically automated to validate that code changes have not broken any interactions. They are less granular than unit tests but more focused than end-to-end tests, striking a balance between scope and speed. As such, they are run less frequently than unit tests but more often than end-to-end tests due to their relatively higher execution time and complexity.

    In the Test Pyramid, integration tests are crucial for providing confidence in the system's overall functionality without the need to perform extensive manual testing. They help identify issues early in the development cycle, reducing the cost and effort of fixing bugs found later in production or during end-to-end testing.

  • What is end-to-end testing in the context of the Test Pyramid?

    End-to-end testing is the highest level of testing in the Test Pyramid, simulating real user scenarios from start to finish. It validates the integrated system as a whole, ensuring all components work together seamlessly to deliver the expected outcome. This includes interactions with databases, networks, and other applications, mirroring production-like settings.

    In the context of the Test Pyramid, end-to-end tests are fewer in number due to their complexity and resource-intensive nature. They are typically run after unit and integration tests have verified the lower-level components and interactions. While unit tests check individual functions and integration tests validate connections between modules, end-to-end tests cover the full workflow of the application, often involving user interfaces, APIs, and external services.

    End-to-end tests are crucial for identifying issues that only appear when all parts of the system are working together, such as data consistency, user experience problems, and workflow issues. However, they are slower to execute and more challenging to maintain, which is why they occupy the topmost layer of the pyramid and are used sparingly compared to other test types.

    Automating end-to-end tests requires a robust framework capable of handling multiple technologies and environments. It's essential to prioritize scenarios that provide the most value and are prone to errors that other test levels might not catch. Despite their cost, end-to-end tests are invaluable for ensuring the system meets the end user's expectations in real-world conditions.

  • How do the different levels of the Test Pyramid interact with each other?

    The different levels of the Test Pyramidunit, integration, and end-to-end tests—interact through a hierarchical feedback mechanism. Unit tests provide immediate feedback on the functionality of small code segments. When these pass, integration tests check if these units work together. Finally, end-to-end tests validate the entire system's flow.

    Unit tests are the foundation and should be fast and isolated, catching low-level issues. As the base, they support the higher levels by ensuring individual components are working correctly before interactions are tested.

    Integration tests act as a bridge, ensuring that groups of units or services work together. They rely on the stability provided by unit tests and in turn offer a safety net for end-to-end tests by catching issues in the interactions between components.

    End-to-end tests are at the top, simulating real user scenarios. They depend on the assurance from both unit and integration tests to focus on the overall behavior rather than internal correctness.

    The interaction is also bidirectional; issues detected at higher levels may lead to more unit or integration tests to cover missed cases. This layered approach ensures that defects are caught at the most appropriate level, optimizing the efficiency and maintainability of the test suite.

    // Example: Adding a unit test after an end-to-end test failure
    function add(a, b) {
      return a + b;
    // Unit test for the add function
    describe('add function', () => {
      it('should add two numbers correctly', () => {
        expect(add(2, 3)).toBe(5);

    In summary, the levels of the Test Pyramid work together to provide a comprehensive and efficient testing strategy, with each level informing and supporting the others.

  • What are the key differences between the three levels of the Test Pyramid?

    The Test Pyramid represents three primary levels of testing: unit, integration, and end-to-end tests, each differing in scope, speed, and complexity.

    • Unit tests are the foundation of the pyramid, focusing on individual components or functions. They are the fastest and most numerous, running in isolation from the rest of the system. Unit tests are typically written by developers as they code, using frameworks like JUnit for Java or Mocha for JavaScript.

    • Integration tests assess the interactions between components or systems. They are slower than unit tests due to the complexity of interactions and the need to configure the environment that closely resembles production. Tools like TestNG for Java or Chai for JavaScript can be used for writing integration tests.

    • End-to-end tests simulate real user scenarios from start to finish, covering the entire application. They are the slowest and least numerous, as they require a complete environment and often involve UI interactions. Selenium WebDriver is a common tool for end-to-end testing.

    Each level has a distinct purpose and cost-benefit ratio. Unit tests are quick and cheap but limited in scope. Integration tests provide a balance, revealing issues in the way units work together. End-to-end tests are the most comprehensive but expensive and time-consuming. The pyramid emphasizes a higher quantity of tests at the lower levels and fewer as you ascend, promoting a cost-effective and efficient testing strategy.

Implementation and Best Practices

  • How can the Test Pyramid be implemented in a software development process?

    Implementing the Test Pyramid in a software development process involves integrating it into the CI/CD pipeline and ensuring that tests at each level are run appropriately. Here's a succinct guide:

    1. Unit Tests: Write unit tests for each new feature or bug fix. Run them locally before committing code and ensure they are executed automatically on every build in the CI server.

    2. Integration Tests: Develop integration tests to verify interactions between components. Trigger these tests after unit tests pass in the CI pipeline to validate that combined units work together.

    3. End-to-End Tests: Create end-to-end tests for critical user journeys. Configure them to run on a staging environment after successful integration tests, ideally in parallel to reduce feedback time.

    4. Maintenance: Regularly review and refactor tests. Remove redundant tests and update existing ones to reflect changes in the application.

    5. Monitoring: Implement monitoring and alerting for test results to quickly identify and address failures.

    6. Feedback Loop: Use test results to inform development practices. High failure rates in a particular area may indicate a need for refactoring or more focused testing.

    7. Documentation: Document test cases and their purposes for better maintainability and knowledge sharing among team members.

    8. Balance: Continuously assess the test suite to maintain the right balance of tests as per the pyramid, avoiding too many end-to-end tests which are costly and time-consuming.

    By following these steps, the Test Pyramid becomes an integral part of the development workflow, guiding test creation and execution, and ensuring a robust, efficient testing process.

  • What are some best practices for using the Test Pyramid?

    To effectively utilize the Test Pyramid in test automation, consider the following best practices:

    • Prioritize lower-level tests: Focus on writing more unit tests as they are faster and cheaper to run. They should form the base of your pyramid and provide quick feedback on the code's health.

    • Mock external services in unit and integration tests to ensure tests are not flaky and can run independently of external factors.

    • Limit UI tests: Keep end-to-end tests to a minimum as they are expensive and slow. Use them to verify critical user journeys rather than testing all functionalities.

    • Test integration points: Write integration tests to ensure that different modules or services work together as expected.

    • Automate regression tests: Convert manual regression tests into automated ones to save time and resources during the development cycle.

    • Maintain test code quality: Apply the same standards of code review and refactoring to test code as you would to production code.

    • Use Continuous Integration (CI): Integrate tests into a CI pipeline to run them frequently and catch issues early.

    • Monitor and optimize test suite performance: Regularly review test execution times and optimize slow tests to maintain a fast feedback loop.

    • Keep tests independent: Ensure that tests do not depend on each other's state to avoid cascading failures.

    • Document and manage test data: Use clear and consistent strategies for managing test data to ensure reproducibility.

    By adhering to these practices, you can maximize the benefits of the Test Pyramid in your test automation strategy.

  • How can the Test Pyramid guide the allocation of resources in a testing process?

    The Test Pyramid can guide resource allocation in a testing process by indicating the proportion and focus of tests at each level. Allocate more resources to unit tests, which are the base and should be the most numerous. They are quick to run and cheaper to maintain, allowing for more frequent execution with less overhead.

    Mid-level resources should be dedicated to integration tests. These ensure that different modules or services work together as expected. While they are more complex than unit tests, they are fewer in number and require a balance between thoroughness and maintenance cost.

    Fewer resources should be allocated to end-to-end tests. They are the most expensive and time-consuming to maintain and run, and should be used sparingly to verify critical user journeys. This strategic allocation ensures that the bulk of testing effort is invested in tests that are more stable and provide faster feedback, while still maintaining a safety net of high-level tests to catch critical issues.

    In practice, this means investing in developer time to write and maintain unit tests, infrastructure to support integration tests, and specialized tools or services for end-to-end tests. By following the guidance of the Test Pyramid, teams can optimize their testing efforts for speed, efficiency, and reliability.

  • What are some common mistakes to avoid when using the Test Pyramid?

    When using the Test Pyramid, avoid these common mistakes:

    • Inverting the pyramid: Over-reliance on end-to-end tests can lead to a fragile test suite. Prioritize unit tests to ensure a stable base.

    • Neglecting test maintenance: As the codebase evolves, regularly refactor tests to keep them relevant and efficient.

    • Ignoring test isolation: Ensure unit tests are independent, mocking external dependencies to prevent cascading failures.

    • Over-mocking: Excessive mocking in unit tests can lead to false positives. Use it judiciously to maintain test validity.

    • Duplicating test coverage: Avoid writing multiple tests for the same functionality at different levels, which wastes resources.

    • Skipping levels: Don't jump to higher-level tests without sufficient lower-level coverage. This can miss subtle bugs that unit tests could catch.

    • Underestimating test data management: Properly manage test data to ensure integration tests are reliable and repeatable.

    • Overlooking non-functional testing: Performance, security, and usability tests are not explicitly represented in the pyramid but are crucial.

    • Failing to adapt the pyramid: The traditional pyramid may not fit all projects. Adapt it to your context, possibly introducing new layers like component or contract tests.

    • Ignoring feedback loops: Use the pyramid to establish quick feedback mechanisms, especially at the unit test level, to catch issues early.

    Remember, the Test Pyramid is a guideline, not a strict rule. Tailor your approach to the needs of your project and team.

  • How can the Test Pyramid be used to improve the efficiency of a testing process?

    The Test Pyramid can improve the efficiency of a testing process by guiding the distribution of test efforts across different granularities. By emphasizing a larger number of low-level unit tests and a smaller number of high-level end-to-end tests, teams can catch bugs early and reduce the feedback loop for developers. This approach minimizes the reliance on time-consuming and brittle UI tests, leading to a faster and more reliable CI/CD pipeline.

    Efficiency gains are also realized through the isolation of defects. Unit tests can pinpoint issues at the method or class level, while integration tests can help identify problems in the interactions between components. This clarity allows for quicker diagnosis and resolution of issues.

    Moreover, the pyramid encourages the automation of tests at the appropriate level. Automating unit tests is typically straightforward and provides quick feedback, while automating end-to-end tests can be more complex and resource-intensive. By focusing automation efforts where they are most effective, teams can optimize their use of resources.

    In practice, the Test Pyramid supports a shift-left testing approach, where testing is performed earlier in the development lifecycle. This can lead to a reduction in the overall cost of fixing defects, as issues are generally cheaper to resolve when detected early.

    By adhering to the principles of the Test Pyramid, teams can create a balanced and efficient testing strategy that supports agile development practices and leads to high-quality software delivery.

Test Pyramid and Automation

  • What is the relationship between the Test Pyramid and test automation?

    The Test Pyramid serves as a blueprint for test automation strategy, emphasizing the proportion and scope of automated tests at each level. In test automation:

    • Unit tests are the foundation, automated extensively due to their speed and precision in isolating issues. They run at the developer level to catch bugs early.
    • Integration tests ensure that modules or services work together as expected. Automation here focuses on data flow and interface contracts.
    • End-to-end tests validate the entire system from the user perspective. Automated sparingly, they're slower and more complex but crucial for verifying user workflows.

    Automating tests according to the pyramid ensures a balanced and scalable test suite. It guides engineers to invest more in lower-level tests that are cheaper to write and maintain, while still recognizing the value of higher-level tests for user experience assurance. This approach reduces maintenance overhead and flakiness often associated with excessive UI tests.

    The pyramid also influences test selection for automation, prioritizing tests that offer the best ROI in terms of coverage and stability. It encourages automating tests that are reliable, repeatable, and provide quick feedback.

    In summary, the Test Pyramid shapes the structure and focus of automated testing efforts, ensuring a cost-effective, maintainable, and comprehensive test suite.

  • How can the Test Pyramid guide the development of an automation strategy?

    The Test Pyramid serves as a blueprint for developing an automation strategy by emphasizing the proportion and scope of tests at each level. It advocates for a larger number of unit tests, a moderate amount of integration tests, and a minimal set of end-to-end tests. This distribution ensures that most issues are caught early at the unit level, where tests are faster and cheaper to run.

    By following the pyramid, automation efforts are focused on creating quick and reliable unit tests that validate individual components in isolation. This foundation allows for fewer, but more complex, integration tests that ensure that components work together correctly. Finally, a small suite of end-to-end tests can be automated to verify the system as a whole in an environment that mimics production.

    The pyramid also suggests prioritizing the automation of tests that are likely to be executed frequently and offer the highest return on investment. Tests that are brittle, flaky, or difficult to maintain should be critically evaluated before automation.

    In practice, this means leveraging tools and frameworks that are well-suited for each level of testing. For example, using a framework like JUnit or NUnit for unit testing, employing tools like Postman or WireMock for integration testing, and utilizing Selenium or Cypress for end-to-end testing.

    // Example of a unit test using JUnit
    public void givenTwoIntegers_whenSummed_thenCorrect() {
        Calculator calculator = new Calculator();
        assertEquals(5, calculator.sum(2, 3));

    By adhering to the Test Pyramid's guidance, test automation strategies become more sustainable, efficient, and effective in catching regressions and ensuring software quality.

  • What role does the Test Pyramid play in deciding which tests to automate?

    The Test Pyramid serves as a guideline for automating tests at various levels, emphasizing the quantity and speed of tests. It suggests a higher number of unit tests due to their quick execution and lower complexity. As you move up the pyramid, the number of tests should decrease, with fewer integration and even fewer end-to-end tests. This distribution ensures that most issues are caught early at the unit level, where they are cheaper to fix.

    When deciding which tests to automate, consider the stability and ROI of each test. Unit tests are prime candidates for automation as they are stable, fast, and provide immediate feedback. Integration tests should be automated for critical interactions between components, focusing on the most important workflows. End-to-end tests should be automated sparingly, targeting key user journeys, as they are more brittle and time-consuming.

    Automate tests that are reliable, maintainable, and provide high value. Avoid automating tests that are flaky, rarely run, or cover low-risk features. Use the pyramid to balance the speed of feedback, the breadth of coverage, and the depth of testing. Prioritize tests that can be run frequently and provide quick feedback to developers.

    In summary, the Test Pyramid influences automation decisions by advocating for a larger number of fast, low-level tests and fewer high-level tests, ensuring a cost-effective, scalable, and maintainable test suite.

  • How can the Test Pyramid help in managing the complexity of automated tests?

    The Test Pyramid aids in managing the complexity of automated tests by encouraging a bottom-up approach to test creation. By focusing on a larger number of low-level unit tests and a smaller number of high-level end-to-end tests, teams can create a robust suite that is easier to maintain and faster to execute. This structure helps in identifying issues at the earliest possible stage, which is typically less complex to debug and fix.

    Unit tests, being the foundation, are quick to run and isolate problems at the code level. As you move up the pyramid, tests become broader and more inclusive, but also more complex and time-consuming. By having fewer of these, the pyramid ensures that the bulk of the testing effort is efficient and less brittle.

    Moreover, the pyramid promotes test independence and reduces test redundancy. By clearly separating concerns at each level, it minimizes the overlap between tests, ensuring that each test has a clear purpose. This separation helps in pinpointing failures without the need to sift through a tangled web of dependencies.

    In practice, the pyramid supports a modular approach to test automation. Tests at each level can be developed and maintained independently, which simplifies updates and refactoring. When changes are made to the system, the pyramid's structure helps determine which tests are likely to be affected and should be reviewed or updated, thus managing the complexity that comes with maintaining a large test suite.

  • What are the challenges of implementing automation at different levels of the Test Pyramid?

    Implementing automation across the Test Pyramid presents unique challenges at each level:

    Unit Testing:

    • Maintaining Isolation: Ensuring tests do not depend on external systems or states.
    • Test Data Management: Generating and managing test data that mimics real-world scenarios.
    • Mocking and Stubbing: Properly simulating dependencies to test components in isolation.

    Integration Testing:

    • Environment Configuration: Setting up and maintaining environments that accurately reflect production.
    • Inter-service Communication: Handling the complexity of testing interactions between services or components.
    • Data Consistency: Ensuring data integrity across different systems and databases.

    End-to-End Testing:

    • Flakiness: Dealing with non-deterministic tests due to UI changes, network issues, or timing problems.
    • Execution Time: Managing long-running tests that can slow down the feedback loop.
    • Resource Intensiveness: Allocating sufficient resources for testing full workflows without affecting other processes.

    Across All Levels:

    • Test Coverage: Balancing the depth and breadth of tests without creating redundancy.
    • Maintainability: Keeping tests up-to-date with evolving features and codebases.
    • Tooling: Selecting and integrating tools that support the testing needs at each level.
    • Skill Set: Ensuring the team has the expertise to write, maintain, and troubleshoot automated tests.
    • Cost-Benefit Analysis: Justifying the investment in automation with tangible returns on efficiency and reliability.
AboutQuestionsDiscord ForumBrowser ExtensionTagsQA Jobs

Rayrun is a community for QA engineers. I am constantly looking for new ways to add value to people learning Playwright and other browser automation frameworks. If you have feedback, email luc@ray.run.