What are some guidelines for applying functional programming principles in Playwright without using classes?


Sure, you can apply functional programming principles in Playwright without using classes. Here's how:

Pure Functions

Write pure functions that take inputs and return outputs based on those inputs. For example, instead of a class method to interact with an element, create a function that takes the element as an argument and performs the action.

function clickElement(element: ElementHandle) {
  return element.click();


Avoid modifying existing data structures or objects directly. Instead, create new ones with the desired changes. This prevents unexpected side effects and makes your code more predictable.

function updatePage(newPage: Page) {
  return newPage;

Higher-Order Functions

Use higher-order functions to encapsulate common actions or behaviors into reusable function components.

function withRetry(action: Function) {
  return async function(...args: any[]) {
    try {
      return await action(...args);
    } catch (error) {
      return await action(...args);

Function Composition

Combine multiple small functions together to create more complex behavior while maintaining modularity and reusability.

const navigateAndClick = compose(navigateTo, clickElement);

Functional Libraries

Use libraries like lodash/fp or Ramda.js that provide utility functions for functional programming paradigms.

By following these guidelines, your code will be easier to understand, test, and maintain, while also promoting reusability and modularity. For more tips on writing efficient Playwright test scripts, check out this blog post.


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Rayrun is a community for QA engineers. I am constantly looking for new ways to add value to people learning Playwright and other browser automation frameworks. If you have feedback, email luc@ray.run.